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PROJECT ID : 94205
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EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAF AND SEED EXTRACTS OF CARICAPAPAYAON SERUM ELECTROLYTES LEVEL OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO LEAD NITRATE
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

The effect of Aqueous leaves and seeds extract of C. papaya on serum electrolytes level of Albino wistar rats were investagted. Male Albino wistar rats weighing 175.3 – 182g were used for the study. A total of thirty (30)  wistar rats were ransdamly divided into 6 groups. Group 1 (control) was administered with rat chow and 0.2ml distilled  water0.2ml of 50mg/kg lead nitrate was administered to group 2,3,4,5, and 6 for ten days. After that group 2 received  0.2ml of 50mg/kg  lead  nitrate for additional 21 days, group 3 received in addition 500mg/kg C.papaya leaves for 21 days, group 4 received  additional 500mg/kg C. papaya seeds extract for 21 days orally, group 5 received 500mg/kg C. papaya leaves + 50mg/kg lead nitrate, group 6 received  500mg/kg C. papaya seeds + 50mg/kg lead  nitrate for 21 days orally respectively, samples were collected and assayed for the renal function marker (electrolytes). Results obtain in groups 2 showed a signification increase in the renal function markers which suggest that lead nitrate has nephrotoxic effect on the kidney. The non-significant decrease in groups 3 except for potassium which increased showed that C. papaya leaves do not have effect on serum electrolytes. The non- significant increase in group 4 except in chloride indicates that C.papaya seeds may have little effect on serum electrolytes especially in prolonged administration and high dosage. The non-significant decrease in group 5 and 6 showed that C. papaya leaves and seeds can suppress the effect of the accumulation of lead nitrate in the system.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Certification -       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Acknowledgment -                  -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Abstract -             -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Table of content-  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1           Background of the Study

1.2            Aim and Objectives

1.3            Scope and limitation

1.4            Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1              Description of Caricapapaya

2.2              Botanical Classification of Caricapapaya

2.3              culinary Uses of Caricapapaya

2.4              Photochemical Uses of Caricapapaya

2.5              Health benefit of Caricapapaya

2.6              Serum Electrolytes

2.6.1            Sodium

2.6.2           Chloride

2.6.3           Calcium

2.6.4            Potassium

2.6.5            Bicarbonate

2.7              Mechanism for Control of Serum Electrolytes

2.8              Factors Affecting Serum Electrolytes

2.9              Clinical Significance of some Serum Electrolytes

2.10            LeadNitrate

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1               Materials

3.1.1           Collection of plant sample

3.1.2           Preparation of plant extract

3.1.3           Experimental design and animals grouping

3.2              Methods

3.2.1           Determination of Serum Sodium (Na+)

3.2.2            Determination of Serum Chloride (Cl-)

3.2.3            Determination of Serum Calcium (Ca)

3.2.4            Determination of Serum Potassium (K+)

3.2.5            Determination of Serum Bicarbonate (Hco-3)

3.4              Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1              Result

4.2              Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1              Summary

5.2              Conclusion

5.3              Recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of Study

The use of a number of medicinal plants and dietary supplements derived from plants as remedies to some human and animal disease conditions have been very popular for a long time now (shanidar and Gills, 1992). In Africa, traditional medicine has been claimed to be vital in preventing and curing various diseases, thereby playing an important role in the health services of the country, especially among the rural dwellers. In Nigeria, people of low-socio economic class depend solely on the use of Caricapapayaleaves as remedies to some disease condition.

Caricapapayais one of the economically important fruit trees in the Caricaceae family. The alternate leaves arrangement are dark green to yellow in colour (Agoha, 1991). Various parts of Carica papaya tree including the leaves are used for various medicinal purposes in different parts of the world. In Niger Delta region of Nigeria, the leaves are used in treatment of malaria, dysentery, diarrhoea, typhoid etc. it is also used in the treatment of intestinal parasites. According to Agoha(1991), the extract of Caricapapayaleaves is used for the treatment of diseases like asthma, fever, beriberi, rheumatism and also as an antihelminthic (Morton, 1997).

Carica papaya is cultivated for its edible ripe fruit, its juice is a popular beverage and its young leaves, shoots and fruits are cooked as vegetables. Shallow cuts on the surface of fully grown but unripe fruit cause a milky sap or latex to ooze that is collected dried and termed “Crude papain”.Electrolytes are various ions such as calcium, chloride, potassium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, bicarbonate that regulate the electric charge on cells and normal flow of water across their membrane. The normal serum electrolytes level are as follows; sodium 135-145mEq/L, potassium 3.5-5.0MEq/L, chloride 98-108mmol/L, calcium2.02-2.60mmol/l, Bicarbonate 22-28mmol/l(Moritz, 2010).

Leads poisoning is a type of metal poisoning and medical condition in human and other vertebrates caused by increase level of the heavy metal lead in the body (Akpanabiatuet al., 2005). Lead poisoning is a medical condition that occurs when peoples are exposed to lead compounds through inhalation, swallowing and rain through the skin and it usually starts with repeated exposure to small amount of lead (Akah and Okafor, 2004). Lead is a highly toxic compound andexposure to lead nitrate can lead to a wide range of adverse health effect (Agboret al., 2007).

 

1.2     Aim and Objectives of the Study

1.2.1  Aim

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of equeous leaf and seed extracts of Carica papaya on serum electrolyte levels of albino wistar rat exposed to lead Nitrate.

1.2.2     Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study were:

  1. To assess the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Caricapapaya on serum electrolyte levels of albino wistar rat exposed to lead nitrate
  2. To determine the effect of seed extract of carica papaya on serum electrolyte level of albino wistar rat exposed to lead nitrate.
  3. To evaluate the effect of lead nitrate on serum electrolyte level of albino wistar rats.

 

1.3   Scope and Limitations of the Study

1.3.1  Scope of the Study

This research work involved the assessment of the effect of leaf and seed extracts of Caricapapaya on serum electrolytes level of albino wistar rat exposed to leadnitrate.

1.3.2    Limitation of the Study

This research work was limited due to financial and time constraints.

1.4      Definition of Terms

Electrolytes: Electrolytes are liquidthat contains ions and can be decompose by electrolysis.

Lesions: To wound or injure, especially in an experimental or other controlled procedure.

Serum : Serum can be defined as the clear yellowish fluid obtained upon separating whole into its solids and liquid components after it has been allowed to clot.

 

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