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PROJECT ID : 85415
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 30
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF USED TOOTH-BRUSHES AND POSSIBLE INFECTIONS ON THE USERS
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

The result of the analysis should the variation of each bacteria in different agar used in toothbrushes samples ranging from 3-58 years. The toothbrushes samples were collected (from different age use for about 3months) and were analyzed for the presence of bacteria in each of the samples. The result indicated the following, scanty growth in macConkey agar plate for Staphylococcus aureus and 1.5x10- 5 cfu/ ml for sheep blood agar plate. Escherichia coli exhibited 3.5x10-5cfu / ml colonies in macConkey agar plate and 1.2x10-5cfu /ml in sheep blood agar plate. In macConkey agar plate for Fusobacteriumnecrophorum3.5x10-5cfu/ml were isolated and 5.0x10-5cfu/ml for sheep blood agar plate. Streptococcus mutans seems to be the highest bacteria isolated from all the samples because of the heavy growth .pseudomonasaeruginosa showed 1.3x10-5cfu/ml in macConkey agar plate. There was a moderate growth in lactobacillus acidophilus of about 5.0x10-5cfu/ml in sheep blood  agar plate and in macConkey agar plate there was scanty growth. Comparing the above result klebsiellapneumoniae were the second highest microbes isolated specifically in a plate isolate with 38years old individual showing 6.2x10-5cfu/ml in macconkey agar plate and with mucoid colonies with red colour in sheep blood agar plate. Hence, there is need for proper handling of toothbrushes and storage to avoid infection and if one is infected with any of the above isolate bacteria, reinfection should be discouraged by not sharing the toothbrushes with others.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page             -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Declaration        -      -       -      -       -      -       -        -       -       -      -        -        ii

Certification         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -       iii

Dedication            -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgment -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Abstract               -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

Nomenclature       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        xi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION     

1.1     Background of the Study        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Statement of the Problems      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        2

1.3     Objectives of the Study           -        -        -        -        -        -        2

1.4     Research Questions       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        2

1.5     Research Hypothesis     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.6     Significance of the Study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.7     Scope/Limitation of the Study -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.8     Definition of Terms       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     Introduction         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

2.2     Bacterial Contamination of used Toothbrush      -        -        -        -        6

2.3     Possible Infection With Prolong Usage       -        -        -        -        -        7

2.4     Signs and Symptoms of Infection     -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.5     Diagnosis of Dental Infection -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.6     Complication of Dental Infection      -        -        -        -        -        -        10

2.7     Treatment Prevention and Precaution of the possible Infection        -        -        10

2.8     Toothbrush Storage and Sterilization         -        -        -        -        -        11

2.9     Toothbrush Manufacturing/Design   -        -        -        -        -        12

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH        

3.1     Laboratory Method       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

3.2     Sample Collection          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

3.3     Experimental Analysis -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

3.4     Biochemical Testing       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1     Presentation of Results  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

4.2     Analysis of Results        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

4.3     Summary of Results      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

4.4     Discussion of Findings  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

5.2     Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

5.3     Recommendations         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

References -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1.1: Appearance of Bacteria and their colony forming unit -        -        18

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Brushing teeth is probably the practice of oral hygiene most common in the world today; however, inadequate use can become a risk to the population health, once they may be contaminated with micro-organisms. These micro-organisms may originate not only from the oral cavity but also from the environment where the toothbrushes are stored (Santo et. al, 2000).

This contamination implicates in the possibility of reinfection of a patient by toothbrushes harboring pathogenic micro-organism (Cobb, 1992). In healthy adults, contamination of toothbrushes occurs early after initial use and increase with repeated use. Bacteria which attach to, accumulate, and survive on toothbrushes may be transmitted to the individual causing disease (Bonten et. al, 1996).

Due to this fact, individual are urges to take preventive measure for the care and maintenance of toothbrushes. Though we know that the oral cavity is home to hundreds of different types of micro-organism; therefore, it is not surprising that some of these micro-organisms are transferred to a toothbrushes during use. Cleaning method such as rinsing it with clean/sterile water after used to remove any remaining toothpaste and debris is advisable. (Suanberg, 1997).

A clean toothbrush that is in good condition is essential for good oral hygiene and in killing the germs that cause bad breath when one is sick there may be more pathogenic bacteria than normal which during brushing some of the bacteria may be collected on the toothbrush, then it is wise to replaced it when recovered.

Toothbrush is the only instrument that the majority of the population has to control the dental biofilm. Therefore this research work will highlight the bacteria contamination on these toothbrushes and the disease/infection they cause at prolong usage.

 

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Unhygienic nature of toothbrushes post infection to the users which are dental carries, periodontal disease and halitosis. Contaminated toothbrushes serve as a reservoir of micro-organism through direct contact of different brushes or from the container that are usually moisture on the sink. The toothbrush should be sanitized or disinfect and replaced in regular time periods to avoid diseases.

 

1.3     Objective of the Study

The aim of this study is to evaluate analyze the bacterial contamination on toothbrushes and the possible infection to the users.

1.4     Research Questions

          i.        Are tooth brushing a cause for decay and dental disease?

          ii.       In the used of contaminated toothbrushes, is the disease deadly?

iii.      Due to the fact that during tooth brushing micro-organism can be transmitted from oral mouth cavity to the brush thereby causing re-infection, is the use of plant stem encouraging?

iv.      Can sodium chloride solution be prefers toothpastes?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

          The following hypothesis will guide in the investigation of this research.

1.  This research will examine toothbrush contamination and significant bacteria retention and survival rate on toothbrushes after use.

2.   This study also finds a significant relationship between repeated use, the possible infection to the users and re-infection.

3.  This study also identified methods to reduce toothbrushes contamination or design rather than evaluating the process related to how the tooth brushes initially becomes contaminated, stored or disinfected.

1.6     Significance of Study

This study is significant in a number of ways:

i.        This study is of importance considering the fact little or no attention is paid to toothbrushes maintenance and hygienic condition.

ii.       Information from this study will provide baseline data against toothbrushes contamination and disease transition.

iii.      The result of this research will create environmental impact of reinfection of an individual by toothbrushes harboring pathogenic micro-organisms.

 

1.7     Scope/Limitation of Study

-        This study focuses on the bacteria contamination of toothbrushes samples and the possible infection to the users.

-        This study is limited to the bacteriological analysis of different toothbrushes samples which involved 10 samples as a result of inadequate management and the possible infection to the users.

 

1.8     Definition of Terms

Bacteriological: Relating to bacteriology or bacteria. This is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria. In this study it will analyze different bacteria associated with toothbrushes contamination.

Contamination: The action or state of making or being made impure by polluting or poisoning. In the course of this, the contamination will make the toothbrushes impure and unsafe for use.

Infection: Is the invasion of an organism’s body tissue by disease causing agent. Based on the study bacterial infection is the harmful strain of bacteria on or inside the body that cause disease due to toothbrushes contamination.

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
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