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PROJECT ID : 80745
TYPE : Project
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COMPARATIVE PROXIMATE ANALYSES OF RAW AND DRIED TETRACARPIDIUM CONOPHORUM (AFRICAN WALNUT)
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

The promiate composition of raw and dried tetracapidium conophorunm (African walnut) was investigated. Quantitatively using the methods of the association of official analytical chemists (AoAC). The results of the study showed that the moisture content in the A raw A-walnut obtained 73.33% and the dired one was 32.67% respectively; The concentration of the Ash content in raw was 1.00% and the dired was 2.50%, the concentration of the crude lipid obtained was 8.80% in the raw and 27.00% in dired, crude fibre was 6.50% in raw and 6.00% in dried respectively, the concentration of the protein obtained was 7.88%. In raw and 19.69% in dried carbohydrate content in raw was 76.13% and 44.81% in dried, the caloric value obtained was 76.50kcal in  raw and 243kcal respectively. The    result revealed that T. conophorum is rich in lipid, protein, carbohydrate and caloric value while the ash content of the nut is very low. The study also revaled that T. conophorum can be an interesting  sources of nutrient in food industries.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification    -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      ii

Dedication      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      iii

Acknowledgement  -      -      -      -      -      -      -      iv

Abstract -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      v

Table of contents    -      -      -      -      -      -      -      vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Introduction    -      -      -      -      -      -      -      1

1.1  Aim and objective of the study      -      -      -      4

1.2  Scope and limitations study   -      -      -      -      4

1.3  Definition of terms  -      -      -      -      -      -      5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Literature Review    -      -      -      -      -      7

2.1  Scientific classification of African walnut       -      8

2.2  Etymology      -      -      -      -      -      -      11

2.3  Uses of T. conophorum  -      -      -      -      12

2.3.1 The Nuts       -      -      -      -      -      -      -      13

2.3.2 The wood      -      -      -      -      -      -      14

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Materials and methods   -      -      -      -      16

3.1  Sources of sample collection  -      -      -      17

3.2  Proximate Analysis  -      -      -      -      -      19

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Results and Discussion   -      -      -      -      25

4.1  Presentation of Results   -      -      -      -      25

4.2  Discussion of Results     -      -      -      -      26

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation      -      31

5.1  Summary -      -      -      -      -      -      -      31

5.2  Conclusion      -      -      -      -      -      -      32

5.3  Recommendation    -      -      -      -      -      32

References      -      -      -      -      -      -      34

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

The African walnut, tetracarpidium conophorum belongs to the family euphorbiaceous (Edem et al; 2009). It is a woodly perennial climber found in the forest regions of African and India (Oke, 1995; Petrova, 1980). African walnut, Tetracarpidium conophorum has a long history as food plant and is grow by peasant farmers across west African rain forest. The climber bears capsules which are greenish in colour when young and greenish-yellow when fully ripe. The walnut kernel consists of two bumpy lobes that look like abstract butterflies. The lobes are off white in colour and covered by a thin, light brown skin. They are particularly attached to each other while the kernel is enclosed in round or oblong shells that are brown or back in colour and they hard. They contain four shelled seeds (willis, 1966). The seeds take 4-6 months to mature (Akpuaka et al 2000) no reference[s] and are found in the local markets between the months of June and September.

In Nigeria, it is traditionally eaten as nut after boiling (Akpuaka et al 2000), (Udedi et al, 2013) and it is found in Abak, Uyo, Etinan, Akamkpa, Akpabuyo, Lagos, Ibadan and some parts of Anambra state.  T. conophorum plant is cultivated principally for the nuts which are dried and consumed as snacks. The dried nuts containing the edible seeds are common articles of trade in Nigeria. A bitter taste is usually observed upon drinking water immediately after eating the nuts. This could be attributed to the procence of chemical substances such as alkaloids (Edem et al, 2009). With the increased interest in the exploitation of less-common oilseeds, several studies have been done on Tetracarpidium conophorum. The folkloric use of the T. conophorum as an anti-microbial medicinal plant was validated (Ajaiyeoba et al. 2006). Adesioye (1991) reported on the impact and sensory qualities of the nut. (Adebona et al., 1988) developed a biscuit-like snack food from conophor nut, throwing some light on the functional significance of the oil seed.

The chemical and functional characteristics of the conophor nut was reported by Enujiugha (2003). Edem et al (2009) reported on the proximate compositions, amino acids and heavy metal content of African walnut. Two Isolectins, Agglutin I and II were characterized from the seed extract (Animashaun, 1998). The main objective of the study was to evaluate the proximate composition of the raw and dried nuts of tetracarpidium conophorum found in Anambra state as to determine its food value and suitability in combating food insecurity in our rural communities.

 

1.1  AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The aims and objective are to compare  the proximate composition of Raw and Dried tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut), with a view to highlighting their nutritional benefits.

1.2  SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This research is limited to the comparative proximate analysis of raw and dried African walnut.

1.3  DEFINITION OF TERMS

Tetracarpidium Conophornum: Is an excellent food material with a potential in combating nutritional insecurity in rural communities where they are found in abundance.

Etymology: Is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.

Nuts: The nuts can be used in recipes and mixed with meats.

Wood: it can be used in the construction of houses or furniture.

Raw: Raw is image file format used by many high – end and professional digital camera as.

Digital: Dired-preserved by removing natural moisture.

Proximate: Proximate are used in the analysis of biological materials as a decomposition of a human consumable good into its major constituents.

 

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