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PROJECT ID : 78545
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THE ANALYSIS OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF PUMPKIN SEEDS (CUCURBITAPEPO)
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

The analysis of physicochemical composition and properties of pumpkin seed (cucurbitapepo) is to analysis the pumpkin seeds to identify or determine its chemical, nutritional composition and also the physical and chemical properties. Pumpkin seeds are nutritional powerhouse wrapped up in a small package with a wide variety of nutrient ranging from magnesium, phosphorus and manganese to copper, iron, zinc, protein, and other minerals and vitamins. They contain a wide ranges of beneficial compounds some of which are phytosterol and free-radical scavenging antioxidants which can give an additional boost to health and our body system. It chemical composition from the analysis are moisture content 6.25 ± 0.28, oil 38 ± 0.02, crude protein 24.69 ± 0.61, total ash 4.64  ± 0.04 and carbohydrate 23.66 ± 0.3.  pumpkin seeds are; it is used as snacks, flavor enhancers in gravies and soups, and also in controlling many skin related disease etc. it’s benefits are; for immune system support, Anti-diabetics, liver, however they are few side effects on excess consumption such as stomach pains or ache, unwanted weight. Therefore the seed is not recommended for pregnant women and children because of its negative effects of miscarriage and constitution on children.

 

Keywords: pumpkin seed, nutrient, physicochemical free-radical antioxidant,

NOMENCLATURE

The full meaning of the abbreviated words for the better understanding of this work.

 

WORDS                                  MEANING

BPH           Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia which results from gradual growth or overgrowth of the prostate gland, that is enlargement of prostate which affects the urethra.

ROS           Reactive Oxygen Species that appears to be the fundamental mechanism underlying a number of human disorders including diabetes, digestive system disorder and viral infections.

ATP            Adenosine Triphosphate the energy molecule of the body.

DNA           Deoxyribonucleic acid, a set replicating material that contains the genes in the chromosome of the cell.

RNA           Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes.

WHO                   World Health Organization that are in charge of health of the people.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page             -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Declaration        -      -       -      -       -      -       -        -       -       -      -        -        ii

Certification         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -       iii

Dedication            -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgment -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Abstract               -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

Nomenclature       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        xi

 

CHAPTER ONE:

1.0     INTRODUCTION         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1     Background of the Study        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Statement of the Problems      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.3     Objectives of the Study           -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.4     Significance of the Study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.5     Scope/Limitation of the Study -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.6     Definition of Terms       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

1.6.1  Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenger    -        -        -        -        -        5

1.6.2  Anti-Ulcer Activity        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

1.6.3  Benign Prostatic Hyperplasi (BPH)  -        -        -        -        -        6

1.6.4  Anticancer/Antitumour  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

1.6.5  Antidiabetic:         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     Definition of Terminologies     -        -        -        -        -        -        8

2.1.2  Pumpkin Seeds    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

2.1.2  Micronutrients     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.1.3  The B-Vitamins:   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        10

2.2     The Trace Elements       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.1.2  Zinc: -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.2.2  Iron: -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.2.3  Selenium:    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.3     Physicochemical Properties of Pumpkin Seeds Oil        -        -        -        14

2.3.0  Physical Properties of Pumpkin Seed Oil  -        -        -        -        14

2.3.1  Density:      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.3.2  Viscosity:   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.3.3  Refractive Index: -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.3.4  Color:         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.4.0  Chemical Properties of Pumpkin Seeds Oil                   -        -        -        15

2.4.1  Acid Value:          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.4.2  Free Fatty Acid Contents:       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.4.3  Peroxide Value:    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.4.4  Saponification Value: 2.4.5     Iodine Value:        -        -        -        -        16

2.5     How to store Pumpkin Seeds            -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.6     Steps of Saving Pumpkin Seeds       -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.7     Function of Pumpkin Seed      -        -        -        -        -        -        17

2.8     Benefits of Pumpkin Seeds      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

2.8.1  Heart healthy Magnesium       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

2.8.2  Zinc for Immune Support        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

2.8.3  Prostate health               -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

2.8.4  Anti-Diabetic Effects     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

2.8.5  Benefits for Postmenopausal Women         -        -        -        -        -        19

2.8.6  Heart and Liver Health  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

2.8.7  Tryptophan for Restful Sleep -        -        -        -        -        -        19

2.8.8  Anti-Inflammatory Benefits    -        -        -        -        -        -        20

2.9     Side-Effects of Pumpkin Seeds         -        -        -        -        -        -        20

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH          -        -        -        -        -        23

3.1     Laboratory Methods      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.2     Materials and Reagent   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.3     Sample Collection          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.4.0  Sample Preparation and Oil Extraction      -        -        -        -        -        24

3.4.1  A Proximate Analysis of Pumpkin Seeds  -        -        -        -        24

3.4.2  Determination of Moisture Content -        -        -        -        -        24

3.4.3  Determination of Oil Content of Pumpkin Seeds           -        -        -        25

3.4.4  Determination of Crude Protein of Pumpkin Seeds       -        -        -        26

3.4.5  Determination of Crude Fiber of Pumpkin Seeds -        -        -        27

3.4.6  Determination of Ash Content of Pumpkin Seeds         -        -        -        28

3.5     Physical Analysis of Oils        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        28

3.5.1  Density       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        28

3.5.2  Viscosity    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

3.5.3  Reflective Index    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        30

3.5.4  Color -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        30

3.6     Chemical Analysis of Oils                 -        -        -        -        -        -        31

3.6.1  Free Fatty Acids   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

3.6.2  Peroxide Value     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

3.6.3  Saponification Value     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        32

3.6.4  Iodine Value         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

3.7     Statistical Analysis        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        34

 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1     Presentation of Results  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

4.2     Summary of Results      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        36

4.3     Discussion of Findings  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        37

4.3.1  Physical Characteristics of the Pumpkin Seeds Oil        -        -        -        38

4.3.2  The Chemical Characteristics of Pumpkin Seeds Oil     -        -        -        39

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS         -        40

5.1     Summary    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        40

5.2     Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        41

5.3     Recommendations         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        41

References -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        42

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1    Proximate Chemical Composition of Pumpkin Seed

Table 4.2    Physical Properties of Pumpkin Seeds Oil

Table 4.3    Chemical Characteristics of Pumpkin Seed Oil

LIST OF FIGURE

Fig. 1:   Cucurbitacin derivative

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Pumpkin seeds are nutritional powerhouse wrapped up in a very small package with a wide variety of nutrients ranging from magnesium to copper, protein, zinc and other minerals and vitamin. They contain a wide array of beneficial some of which are phytosterole and free-radical scavenging antioxidants, which can give an added boost health to our body. Pumpkin seeds may benefit the heart, liver and immune system, help fight diabetes cancer, vision and also offer  unique benefit for men’s prostate health and women’s relief of menopause symptoms  as well, because these are high-fiber seeds, they are able to boost your fiber intake.

Pumpkins belong to the family cucurbitaceae, the majority of the species in this family are used as food and are found in genera: Citrullus (water melons and wild colocynths), cucumis (cucumbers, gherkins and melons), lagenaria (gourds), sechium (chayote) and cucuibita. The genuecucuibita, which is economically the most important one, includes five species: (maxima, C. pepo, C. mosdiata, C. ficifolia, and C. turbaniformis in which C. pepo exhibits the widest variation, especially with respect to fruit characteristics (Gemrotet al., 2006).

It is claimed that cucurbitapepo is more persistent and less liable to deterioration, which certainly is reflected in the quality of the extracted oil (Markovicand Bastic, 1975). Hull-less or naked pumpkin seed are widely grows in the Southern region of Austria (Styria province) and the adjacent regions in Slovenia and Hundary (Idouraineet al., 1996).

Several studies have reported the chemical composition and oil characteristics of the pumpkin seed from different origins and varieties (Lazes, 1986) Stevenson et al., 2007). The four fatty acids presented in significant quantities are palmiticstearic, oleic and linoleic acids (Stevenson et al., 2007).

Raw or roasted pumpkin seeds are used as a snack food for human consumption in many cultures all over the world. The Kernels of pumpkin seeds have been utilized as flavor enhances in gravies and soups, and used in cooking, baking and ground meat formulations as a nutrient supplement and a functional agent (Tsakniset al., 1997: El-Adawy and Taha, 2001). The oil of pumpkin seeds are being used as a cooking oil in some countries in Africa and the Middle East, and as a salad oil in the South of Austria and the adjacent regions in Slovenia and Hungary (Wenalet al., 2002).

The Pumpkin seeds possess valuable dietary and medicinal qualities besides being the source of good-quality edible oils. Pumpkin seed oil has been used traditionally as medicine in many countries such as China, Yugoslavia, Argentina, India, Mexico, Brazil and America. It is applied in therapy of small disorders of the prostate gland and urinary bladder caused by hyperplasia (BHP). Pumpkin seed extract has been reported to have antidiabetic, antitumor, antibacterial, anticancer, antimulagenic, and antioxidant activities. It has also been found to have strong hypotriglyceridemic and serum cholesterol-lowering effects (Fu et al., 2006).

The health benefits of pumpkin seeds are attribute to their macro and micro-constituent compositions. They are a rich natural source of proteins, triterpenes, lignans, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidative phenolic compound carotenoids, tocopherol and minerals (Fu et al., 2006).

Due to the differences among the species and/or variaties of cucurbita grown in different areas of the world, the present study was undertaken to determine the composition of whole seed and physicochemical properties of the crude oil of cucurbitapepo subsp. Pepo var. Styria ca grown in Iran. (Gohari A. et al., (2011). Para. 8-10).

 

1.2     Statement of the Problems

Pumpkin seeds face challenges of hot land or soil which means, they found it difficult to survive in desert or dry soil. They also have the problem of much sunlight which sometime burnt the leave and causes the fruit to falsely ripe and decay. Late planting or sowing of pumpkin seeds during planting seasons lead to its lack of fruit and seed and then make’s it scare or deficient for the year, this problem affects the farmers and shortage of farm products for the year.

 

1.3     Objectives of the Study

i.        To analyze and evaluate the physicochemical composition and properties of pumpkin seed (cucurbitapepo).

ii.       To determine the levels of nutrients and micronutrients; zinc, iron, protein, magnesium, manganese, copper, potassium and other trace elements in the fruits and seeds of the pumpkin.

iii.      To determine the function, benefits and side effects of pumpkin seeds.

iv.      To recommended consumption of pumpkin seed in our daily diet.

 

1.4     Significance of the Study

 This study offers a backgrounds information against which improvements in analysis of physicochemical composition and properties of pumpkin seeds (cucurbitapepo) can be made. It also provides the uses of pumpkin seed. The study provides a data bank of nutritional status of the pumpkin seeds which can guide nutritionist and breeders in search of better breeds that can be more qualitatively and quantitatively be useful in addressing food security visa avismalnutrition. Since pumpkin seeds or pumpkin fruits can boast of a potential market of over eighty four million people within the East African community popularization and marketing of processed pumpkin varieties will also economically empower and improve the livelihoods of the people of the region by addressing the levels of poverty and health.

 

1.5     Scope/Limitation of the Study

The study exclusively involved determinations of levels of zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, manganese, protein, copper, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, ascorbic acid, B. carotene, a-tocopheral, pyridoxine in fruits and also health benefits. The results of analysis were affected by the maturity of the fruits, seeds and leaves which could not be ascertained on sampling.

 

1.6     Definition of Terms

1.6.1  Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenger

Cellular damage or oxidative injury arising from free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) now appear to be the fundamental mechanism underlying a number of human disorders including diabetes, digestive system disorder, viral infections, neurodegenerative disorder, autoimmune pathologies and inflammation. Free radicals are generated through environmental chemcials, xenobiotics, endogenous chemicals, as well as normal metabolism. (Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez (2016).para 16).

1.6.2  Anti-Ulcer Activity

Cucurbitacin derivative was isolated from methanol extract of powered of C. pepo which showed dose depended antiulcer activity decreasing ulcerative index indicated the ability of the compound to protect gastric nucosa.

Fig. 1:   Cucurbitacin derivative

(Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrer (2016) Para 33)

1.6.3  Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

Benign prostatic hyperplasia result of gradual growth or overgrowth of the prostate gland, which is located at the base of the bladder and surrounds the urethra. The enlarged prostate affects the urethra and therefor, BPH is associated with diminution in Urinary function. Management of this disease to include pumpkin seeds suggested that the actions of pumpkin seed oil may be attributed to the content of phytosterols, which are known to interfere with the actions of dihydrotesterone. This is a potent androgens produced in the prostate, from testosterone by the enzyme sa-reductase that lead growth of the prostate. This androgens playing an considerable part in the disease process of BPH so, dihydrotesterone inhibition reduced growth of the prostate. (Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez (2016).Para 34.

1.6.4  Anticancer/Antitumour

Cancer is one of the main health problems of all the world. Cancer is responsible for 12% of the world mortality. Treatments include Chemotherapy Surgery, and radio-therapy. However, Chemotherapy suffers limitations of drug resistance, toxicity, side-effects and lacking specificity toward tumor cell.

Therefore, there is a strong interest in the use of plants as a promising source of more efficient anticancer drugs which a substance or drugs that prevents cancer. (Rosa Martha Perez Coutierrez (2016).Para 43).

 

1.6.5  Antidiabetic:

Refers to all the different types of medicine involved in the treatment of diabetes. All these agents aim to reduce blood sugar levels to an acceptable range called achieving normoglycemia and relive symptoms of diabetes such as thirst, excessive urination, and ketoacidosis (a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when the body cannot use glucose as a fuel source). Antidiabetic agents also prevent the development of or slow the progression of along-term complications of the disease such as nephropthy (Kidney disease) neuropathy (nerve damage) and retinopathy (damage to the retina of eye). Antidiabetic include; alpha-glucoside inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol), amylin analogs (pramlintide), meglitinides (nateglinide, repaglinide), insulin, and non-sulfonglurreas. (Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez (2016) Para 22).

 

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