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PROJECT ID : 60165
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NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF BITTER LEAF (VERNONIA AMYGDALINA) AS COMPONENT OF OUR DIET
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

This study involved the isolation, purification and characterisation of the bioactive phytochemicals from the ethanolic extract. Many secondary metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities improving the effect of oxidative stress on tissues. Medicinal plants contain bioactive compounds capable of preventing and fighting oxidative related diseases, Phytochemical composition of Vernonia amygdalina extract and its alleviation of oxidative stress. The qualitative analyses showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, polyphenol, resins, and phenols, were detected in the both aqueous and ethanol extract except tannins was absent in both aqueous and ethanol. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of all major classes of phytochemicals. This indicated that biological active compounds of Vernonia amygdalina are more polar and could serve as source of bioactive compounds for nutrition and therapeutic purposes.

 

KEY WORDS: Nutritional, Vernonia amygdalina, Analysis, Component, Diet

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page             -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i        

Declaration        -      -       -      -       -      -       -        -       -       -      -        -        ii

Certification         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -       iii

Dedication            -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgment -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Abstract               -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1     Background of the Study        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.3     Objective of the Study   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

1.4     Significance of the Study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

1.5     Scope/Limitation of the Study -        -        -        -        -        -        6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

2.1     Plants Sources and Medical Products         -        -        -        -        -        8

2.1.1   The Plant (Vernonia amygdalina) Bitter Leaf     -        -        -        -        9

2.1.2    Scientific classification of Vernonia amygdalina         -        -        -        10

2.1.3     Distribution of Vernonia amygdalina      -        -        -        -        -        10

2.1.4     Economic Importance of Vernonia amygdalina         -        -        -        -        10

2.1.5      Chemical Composition of Vernonia amygdalina       -        -        -        11

2.1.6 Medicinal Uses of Vernonia amygdalina    -        -        -        -        -        11

2.1.7 Previous Chemical and Pharmacological Investigations on Vernonia amygdalina         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.2       Medicinal Plants -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.2.1     History of Medicinal Plants -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.2.2      Uses of Medicinal Plants     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.3       Traditional System of Herbal Medicine    -        -        -        -        -        16

2.3.1        Historical and Current Perspective      -        -        -        -        -        16

2.3.2       Asian Traditional Medicine         -        -        -        -        -        -        17

2.3.3       European Traditional Medicine   -        -        -        -        -        -        17

2.3.4        Neo- western Traditional Medicine      -        -        -        -        -        18

2.3.5    African Traditional Medicine          -        -        -        -        -        -        18

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH      -        -        20

3.1     Material      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

3.1.1    Plant Material    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

3.1.2    Instruments/Equipment        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

3.1.3    Chemicals -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        21

3.1.4    Reagents   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        21

3.2        Methodology    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.2.1     Laboratory Method    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.2.2     Sample Material Collection  -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.2.3      Sample Preparation   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.2.4       Experimental Procedure     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.2.5       Experimental Analysis       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.3          Preliminary Qualitative Phytochemicals Analysis    -        -        -        25

3.3.1       Test for Alkaloids    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3.2        Test for Glycosides -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3.3       Test for Saponin      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3.4        Test for Tannin       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

3.3.5         Test for Flavonoids          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

3.3.6         Test for Steroids     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

3.3.7         Test for Polyphenol         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

3.3.8          Test for Resins      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

3.3.9           Test for Phonol    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

3.3.10         Test for Terpenoids       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION   -        -        -        28

4.1     Presentation of Results -        -        -        -        -        -        -        28

4.2     Analysis of Results        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

4.3     Summary of Results                -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

4.4     Discussion of Results    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        30

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS         -        33

5.1     Summary    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

5.2     Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

5.3     Recommendations         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        34

          References  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        36

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Spices which include plants of medicinal importance have been used for the treatment of human ailments far back prehistoric times (Osagie and Eka, 2004). In Nigeria, some of these plants are used for the preparation of certain type of soups which are delicacies and also traditionally recommended for the treatment of ailments such as malaria, fever (Stadtman, 1992). The use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been recognized and widely practiced in recent times. According to the World Health Organization, about 80% of the world’s populations rely on traditional medicines to meet their health regiments (Craig, 2000). Many commercially proven drugs used in modern medicine were initially used in crude form in traditional or folk healing practices or for other purposes that suggested potentially useful biological activities.

Medicinal plants have always been associated with cultural behavior and traditional knowledge. Many studies have demonstrated that medicinal plants contain various bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which are responsible for their beneficial health effects. Vegetables are those herbaceous plants whose part or parts are eaten as supporting food or main dishes and they may be aromatic, bitter or tasteless (Stadtman, 1992). The utilization of leafy vegetable is part of Africa’s cultural heritage and they play important roles in the customs, traditions and food culture of the African household. Nigeria is endowed with a variety of traditional vegetables and different types are consumed by the various ethnic groups for different reasons. The nutrient content of different types of vegetables varies considerably and they are not major sources of carbohydrates compared to the starchy foods which form the bulk of food eaten, but contain vitamins, essential amino acids, as well as minerals and antioxidants (Oparaeke, 2007; Ortegal, 2006). According to Osagie and Eka, (2004), vegetables are the cheapest and most available sources of important proteins, vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids. Vegetables are included in meals mainly for their nutritional value; however, some are reserved for the sick and convalescence because of their medicinal properties.

Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products today symbolise safety in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment. Although herbs had been priced for their medicinal, flavouring and aromatic qualities for centuries, the synthetic products of the modern age surpassed their importance, for a while. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with hope of safety and security.

Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries (Craig, 2000). The use of plant derived compounds as part of herbal preparations as well as alternative sources of medicament continues to play profound roles in the general provision of good health to people all over the world (Farombi et al., 1998). Interest in medicinal plants as a remerging health aid has been fuelled by the rising costs of prescription drugs in the maintenance of personal health and well-being, and in the bio-prospecting new plants derived drugs (Farombi, 2003).

In modern times, plants have both served as a source of allopathic drugs or herbal extracts for various chemotherapeutic purposes in developed and developing countries alike (Farombi, 2003). In the world, over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural products origin (Craig, 2000) and natural product play an important role in drug development programed of the pharmaceutical industries (Farombi, 2003).

Traditionally the use of plant parts as source of herbal preparations for treatment of various ailments are based on the experience passed from generation to generation, virtually by oral tradition and through practice and forms part of the indigenous knowledge of people of any locality (Banso and Adeyemo, 2007). Most of these herbal remedies are known by our traditional healers and elderly men and women of families in our rural areas. The herbal knowledge or practices known by traditional healers are jealously guarded with utmost secrecy for economic reasons. According to Okwu (2001), many traditional herbal practitioners also tend to hide the identity of plants used for different ailments largely for fear of lack of patronage should the patient learn to cure himself. Thus to mystify their trade, cultivation of the plant is not encouraged, consequently collection is virtually from the wild.

1.2     Statement of Problem

Vernonia amygdalina have been recognized to posses relatively high medicinal properties following it utilization as vegetable for edible purpose, purgative, anti-inflammatory or anti-microbial agent in traditional medicine. There is a resurgence of interest in this vegetable due to it significant role in management of various human ailments. The discovery of therapeutic efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina with less toxic side effects compared to modern drugs is gradually creating room for its global utilization as better alternatives to chemically synthesized drugs.

Physiotherapy is becoming an alternative remedy for delivery of primary health care services due to their wide spread availability and low cost. This discovery of the therapeutic efficacy of most plants with less toxic side effects compared to modern drugs is gradually creating room for global utilization of these plants as better alternatives to chemically synthesized drugs. The therapeutic efficacy of plants has been attributed to the biologically active chemical naturally resident in such plant parts as leaves, stem or roots, some of which are also known to be potentially toxic, if digested in high amount.

With the discovery of a rising number of both medical and potentially medicinal plants, with wide acceptability and applicability, there is need to compare both quantitatively and qualitatively (or simple analytically) determine the components of a few of these plants in other to ascertain which among these can possible offer the most therapeutic effect with minimal associated toxicity. It is against this background that this research is embarked upon in other to establish the analysis of medicinal and nutritive values of Vernonia amygdalina for efficient herbal supplements, the active components of this plant with therapeutic properties, with a view of providing empirical bases for the choice of this plant for edible purpose or as therapeutic remedies in management of diseases as well as delivery of primary health care services.

 

1.3 Objective of the Study

General Objectives:

The study is to determine the medicinal and nutritional potentials of the vegetables commonly eaten and thus understand the reason for their inclusion in our local dishes and sensitize the people on the need for their consumption of Vernonia amygdalina for efficient herbal supplements.

Specific objectives of the study are to:

(i)      To analysis the potential active components of Vernonia amygdalina whose biological roles could be employed therapeutically in the management of various health complications

(ii)     Determine the phytochemical constituents and carry out  extracts of the plant Vernonia amygdalina

(iii)    Qualitative determination of phytochemical composition of the leaf of the plant Vernonia amygdalina.

1.4     Significance of the Study

The results of this study will provide scientific evidence on the level of medicinal potency of Vernonia amygdalina in management in some ailments considering their respective bioactive phytochemical profile. It will also provide biochemical evidence for the observed therapeutic effects of these plants when used singularly or in combination for medicinal purposes. Knowledge of analysis the nutritive vales of this plant will go a long way in promoting the use in the management of nutrition deficiency associated disease and oxidative stress related conditions. The study will also serve as a useful resource material for further research in the relevant area.

 

1.5     Scope/Limitation of the Study

(i)      Ethanolic extraction of the active component of this plant for phytochemical screening. And Quantitative and qualitative phytochemical Screening:

 (ii)       Phytochemical Screening:

i.        Test for Alkaloids

ii.       Test for Glycosides

iii.      Test for Saponins

iv.      Test for Tannins

v.       Test for Flavonoids

vi.      Test for steroids

vii.     Test for polyphenols

viii.    Test for resins

ix.      Test for phenols

x.       Test for terpenoids

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
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