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PROJECT ID : 52195
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 39
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SOIL ALONG IKOT EKPENE, ABA HIGH WAY SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA.
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out on Evaluation of  heavy metals in soil which was found in Ikot osurua along Ikot Ekpene Aba High way south Eastern Nigeria, sample was collected from three different place in Ikani’s street beside mechanical workshops where trucks are parked on 20th sept, 2015, at different place. The heavy metal concentration in soil sample was determine by the used of Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The accumulation off the metal in soil especially in the body burden of the residents. Further investigation is highly necessary to study the concentrations and health implementation of these metal in residents of the linear settlement along this major road in Ikot Ekpene.

Table of Contents

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

1.1     Aim and Objective

1.2     Significance of the Study

1.3     Theoretical Background

1.4     Statement of the Problem

1.5     Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review

2.1     Sources of some Heavy Metals

2.2     Properties of Heavy Metals

2.3     Application of some Heavy Metals

2.4     Environmental and Health Implication of Heavy Metals.

2.5     Management of Contaminated Soil.

2.6     Uses of Heavy Metals

2.7     Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals

2.8     effect of Heavy Metals

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and Methods

3.1     Materials and Reagents

3.2     Collection of Sample

3.3     Digestion of Sample

3.4     Determination of Heavy Metals

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Result

4.1     Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations

          References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

Roads are important infrastructure that plays a major role in stimulating soil and economic activities.  However, road construction has resulted in heavy environmental pollution.

Several researchers have indicated the need for a better understanding of trace metal pollution of roadside soils (Dowdy et al., 2002). Trace metals in roadside soil may come from various human activities, such as industrial and energy production, construction, vehicle exhaust, waste disposal, as well as coal and fuel combustion.

According to (Anderson, 2000), in developing countries like Nigeria, improved road accessibility creates a variety of ancillary employment which range from vehicle repairs, vulcanizer and welders to auto-electricians, battery charges and dealers in other facilitators of motor transportation. These activities send trace metals into the air the metals subsequently are deposited into nearby soil, which are absorbed by plants on such soils. Metals such as iron Fe, Copper Cu, Zinc Zn are essential component of many alloy, pipe, wire and tyre in motor vehicles and are released into the roadside environment as a result of mechanical abrasion and normal wear and tear. Soil tends to accumulates metals on a relatively long term basic since many metals in the soil are so mobile.

1.1     Aim and Objective

The aim of this research work is to evaluate some heavy metals in soil along Ikot Ekpene Aba high way South Eastern Nigeria with this objective;

1.       To determine and evaluate the levels of some selected heavy metals in the soil samples.

1.2     Significance of the Study

The significance of these studies is to evaluate heavy metal in soil along Ikot Ekpene Aba high way South Eastern Nigeria.

1.3     Theoretical Background

Nowadays landfill has accepted a reasonable and widely useful technology that uses at most of developing country. Beside it can accommodate large amount of waste disposal, it also give low investment and operational cost (Kabata, et al., 2001) but for a certain time, landfill also is a major factor that gives bad effect to the environmental pollution. The soil at the landfill may become toxic and poison because of presence of higher concentration of heavy metal (Williams, et al., 2006). Even though there is some metal that are good to the soil which may come from dumping waste, (such as nitrate that can act as fertilizer to the soil), but most of the soil will accept more type of dangerous heavy metal in the soil that will lead to the negative effects.

This situation will make the soil have more dangerous and toxic heavy metal rather than good heavy metal. After a long time, waste that decomposed at the landfill will make the soil become polluted and may contain large amount of heavy metals. There are some of heavy metal that can react with rain rich oxygen to form sulphur and then produces macromolecule of sulphide. These hazardous molecule will influence the quality of atmosphere thus may affect health and life of animal being closed to the landfill.

1.4     Statement of the Problem

More often than not, the dangerous possibility may occur such as contamination of the crop in terms of heavy metal uptake by the plant, pollution of underground water, influence the plant growth and make the soil generally considered toxic (Peters, 2005). It also affect agricultural activities.

Therefore, the critical issues mentioned above should be address in order to reduce harmful effect caused by heavy metal which may lead to environmental pollution.

1.5     Definition of terms

Heavy metals are group of metals that occur naturally most of them can be found in rock and soil. Heavy metals can be said to be referred to as any metallic element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous even at low concentration.

Metal is a solid material which is typically hard shiny, malleable, fusible and ductile with good electrical and thermal conductivity e.g iron, gold. OR

Metal is a substance with high electrical conductivity, luster and malleability which readily looses electrons to form positive ions (cations).

Soil is the mixture of mineral, organic matter, gases, liquid and the countless organisms that together support life on earth.

Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subjects, merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.

 

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