List of Departments
   

 

DETAILS

 

PROJECT ID : 49645
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 36
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN PERIWINKLE SHELLS
()
Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

Studies on the heavy metals contents of periwinkle shell were carried out using standard analytical procedures. Result of the cooked shell revealed that Fe, Zn, Mn and Pb were549.00, 129.50, .66.40 and 14.43mgl respectively compared to uncooked one which had corresponding values of 479.00, 119.40, 63.29 and 15.22mg/l respectively. Similarly, values of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and V for cooked sample were obtained as 3.48, 3.01, 1.19, 1.25and 0.58mg/l respectively compared to the uncooked one, which were 4.16, 3.11, 1.22,1.28 and 0.42mg/l. the sample is rich in certain nutritive elements capable of enhancinganimal feed applied.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Declaration        -      -       -      -       -      -       -        -       -       -               -           -           ii

Certification -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -          iii

Dedication                 -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Acknowledgment     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Abstract                     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi

Table of Contents     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vii

Nomenclature           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           xi

 

CHAPTER ONE:

1.0       INTRODUCTION     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.1       Background of the Study    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.2       Statement of the Problems -           -           -           -           -           -           -           2

1.3       Objectives of the Study                   -           -           -           -           -           -           4

1.4     Research Questions       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

1.5     Significance of the Study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

1.6     Scope/Limitations of the Study         -        -        -        -        -        -        5

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW        -        -        -        -        -        -        7

2.1     Overview of the Study   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        7

2.2     Heavy Metal Pollution and Control  -        -        -        -        -        11

2.3     Sources of Heavy Metal Pollution    -        -        -        -        -        12

2 4     Uses of Heavy Metals    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.5     Types of Heavy Metals  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.6     Qualitative of Heavy Metals    -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.7     Quantitative of Heavy Metals -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.8     Heavy Metals (Description/Biological Benefits and Uses)                -        15

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH      -        21

3.1     Laboratory Methods      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        21

3.2     Sample/Material/Component Collection Sample Collection    -        21

3.3     Sample/Preparation/Material or Component Selection  -        -        21

3.4     Equipment Apparatus and Materials         -        -        -        -        -        22

3.5     Procedures for Analysis -        -        -        -        -        -        -        22

 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.0     RESULT, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS      -        -        -        24

4.1     Presentation of Results/Summary of Result         -        -        -        -        24

4.2     Analysis of Table -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

4.3     Discussion of Result      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

4.4     Summary of Result        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        28

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS     -           29

5.1       Summary       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           29

5.2       Conclusion    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           29

5.3       Recommendations   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           30

References    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           31

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1:   Result of heavy metal contents of cooked periwinkle shell ‘

Table 4.2:   Result of heavy metal contents of uncooked periwinkle shell

NOMENCLATURE

AAS:          Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.

SPSS:                   Statistical Package for Social Sciences.

MRT:                   Multiple Range Test.

IDL:            Instrument Detection Limit.

PSC:           Periwinkle Shell Carbon.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Periwinkle is a rounded univalve shell seafood belonging to the family(Littorinidae or LitorinaLittorea). The dark brown to black shell grows to a little overone inch across each turn of a snail’s shell is called a whorl. The main whorl, calledthe body whorl of the periwinkle is much larger than the others; The remaining whorlare low-spire compared to most other snails (it spire is the part of the shell whichincludes all the whorls above the body whorl) The operculum of the periwinkle isblack and fits perfectly over the shell opening also common as our slowest snails(Martin et.al., 1982).

The periwinkle is a strict herbivore; it feed on the algae film which covers therocks of the intertidal zone when feeding even in an aquarium, there can often be seena trial on the rock as the snail scrapes away the plant growth in heavily populatedareas the rocky shores can be scraped clean of all growth. Like nearly all snails, theperiwinkle uses its tooth-like radula to feed with periwinkle only feed during hide tideas suggested (Kori-Siakpere 1980).

Female periwinkles lay several thousand eggs at a time, all embedded in a massof gelatin (similar to frog’s egg). The gelatin soon disintegrates leaving the individualsto drift away; they hatch into tiny shell-less larvae which drift in the currents forseveral days before growing a shell and settlingto the bottom (Van Vuuren and DuPrez 1999).

Periwinkle have been gathered and for many years. Abalones are known forbeing shiny and colourful inside their shells, these relatives of top shells and limpetsgraze on algae and are themselves eaten is seafood especially in ‘Western NorthAmerica and the South Pacific by (Ezenmoye 1992).

 

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Heavy metal content in periwinkle shells are natural components of the earth’scrust and they can enter the water and food cycles through a variety of chemical andgeo-chemical processes (NDES, 1999; Ggaruko and Friday, 2007). The fate heavymetals introduced by human activities into aquatic ecosystem have recently becomethe subject of wide spread concern, since beyond the tolerable limits they becometoxic (Pocok et al, 1994; Kolleret. al, 2004). The World Health Organization as aUnited Nations State that are monitoring eight elements in fish- Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Cu,Zn, Fe and Sn — is obligating and monitoring of others is suggested (WHO, 1971;Staniskiene et-al, 2006). Hence the determination of harmful and toxic substances inwater, and biota gives direct information on the significance of pollution in the aquaticenvironment (Huggetet. al,1973). Also, studies on the pollution status of some faunain some parts of Nigeria and around Niger Delta area have been reported (Chindahand Braide, 2003; Davies et al, 2006). It is therefore necessary to determine the concentration of Pb, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Mn and Cr in periwinkles shells. This is themost essentially one massive in oil exploitation, exploration, production and refiningprocesses are taken place.

The concentrations of heavy metals during wet season were slightly higher thandry season except in few occasions. Also the heavy metals concentration of the year2009 were generally higher than the year 2008 indicating more of these metals weredischarged or introduced into water sediment environment than the previous year’sWhich enhanced bio-concentrate metals (Amakiri J 2005).

Increasing industrial activities over recent decades have regularly introduced heavyand toxic metals, fertilizers or pesticides in any ecosystem. At the same timesignificant amounts of ‘municipal and Agricultural wastes are discharged into theenvironment. Once released, these pollutants enter atmospheric and hydrologicalcirculation and are finally deposited on river beds, back swamps and in the marineenvironment Where both lacustrine and marine periwinkle, continuously enriched byall kinds of pollutants, become a sink indicating the past history of contamination [6-9, 53] Therefore, the investigation of the vertical distribution of the pollutants inperiwinkle cores can famish useful information concerning these processes.

For the marine monitoring studies of sedentary organisms, widely distributedgeographical studies capable of accumulating metals, so as to reflect theenvironmental conditions, are employed. Gastropod molluscs, especially in fulfillingall the requirements of pollution [10-12]. Its suitability is universally recognized,being included in most of the national environmental monitoring programmes ofmarine and brackish water pollution. These organisms accumulate most of thecontaminants at much higher levels are representative of the pollution of an area,hence can be used to monitor the quality of coastal Waters. The gastropods have longbeen regarded as promising bio-indicators and bio-monitoring subjects. They areabundant in many brackish aquatic ecosystems as in the Niger Delta, being easilyavailable for collection. They are highly tolerant to many pollutants and exhibit highaccumulation of them, particularly heavy metals (Braide S.A. and Chikwendu, S.O.N2009).

 

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to evaluate the level of heavy metal contents in periwinkle shells.

1.       To assess the level of heavy metal contents in periwinkle shells whether thereis negative or positive.

2.      To determine the benefits of these heavy metals where present.

3.       To recommend ways of collection and processing for various application.

 

1.4     Research Questions

i.        Can heavy metals be degraded?

ii.       What are heavy metals?

iii.      Can a heavy metal ever exist in an organic form?

 

1.5     Significance of the Study

Various agricultural development programs and organizations, companies,governmental and non-governmental, have evolved in Nigeria and outside with theaim of modernizing and improving; technical knowledge and skills for greater outputand higher standard of life to live and safety. (Olowoyo, D. N. 2011).

 

1.6     Scope/Limitations of the Study

Nigeria covers latest findings on behavior, cycling and pathway of metals inthe environment, processes of contamination and environmental impacts toecosystems, environment and humans and approaches for remediation also providesan opportunity to stay on top of the latest development in tools, approaches andmethods to identify, access and manage metal in various areas of application includingindustry, environmental management societal needs and policy. (Abdullah and Opik,H “1976”).

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
Untitled Document