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PROJECT ID : 31205
TYPE : Project
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AN EVALUATION OF INFECTION RATES OF ASTHMA AND EFFICIENT CONTROL MEASURES IN IKOT EKPENE.
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

Asthma is one of the most chronic diseases in children with increasing morbidity and mortality. A genetic predisposition and exposure to allergens have been implicated as major risk factors for the development of asthma; however, increasing evidence indicates that the mother plays a crucial role in mediating thep and mechanism of this maternal influence and how it might be associated with the development of allergic sensitization and asthma under normal conditions, here in IkotEkpene about 54% of children had an indication of asthma, while adult is about 187% had an indication of asthma. And this asthma does develop its symptoms daily, weekly and monthly. It’s also has the point of severity and non-severity. This asthma can be control by following the doctor, healthcare and medical laboratory technician advice or instruction on how to take their medication to prevent managed and control their asthma. Chapter four of this study show the evaluation rates of asthma. The severity, age, height, daily, weekly and monthly occurrence of peak flow measure the severity of an chronic episode of asthma.

 

KeyWords:  Asthma, infection, Evaluation, rates, control trigger, pediatric, episodes and chronic.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Declaration -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Approval Page     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgement         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

List of Tables       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        x

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1     Background of the Study        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Statement of the Study  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.3     Objectives of the Study -        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.4     Research Questions       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.5     Significance of the study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.6     Scope/Limitation of the Study -        -        -        -        -        -        5

1.7     Definition of Terms       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        7

2.1     General Overview of Asthma  -        -        -        -        -        -        7

2.2     Causes of Asthma          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

2.3     Risk Factors of Asthma -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

2.4     Complication of Asthma         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.5     Self-management of Asthma   -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.6     Signs and Symptoms of Asthma      -        -        -        -        -        -        10

2.7     Acute Asthma      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        11

2.8     Chronic Asthma   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.9     Transmission of Asthma         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.10   Body modification of Asthma -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.11   Drugs for Asthma          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.12   Diagnosis    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.13   Serology/Immunology   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.14   Biopsy        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        17

2.15   Control Measure  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

2.16   Treatment of Asthma     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

2.17   Asthma Medications      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

2.18   Prognosis    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        21

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     METHODOLOGY      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.1     Laboratory Method       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.2     Sample Material Collection     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.3     Sample Apparatus         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.4     Sample Preparation       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.5     Experimental Analysis  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     RESULT, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION      -        -        -        -        27

4.1     Presentation of Results  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

4.2     Analysis of Results        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

4.3     Summary of Results      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        30

4.4     Discussion of Results    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        .30

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY, CONCLUSION  AND RECOMMENDATION      -        32

5.1     Summary    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        32

5.2     Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

5.3     Recommendation -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

REFERENCES    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1    Shows common Immunology and serology tests           -        -        16

Table 4.1    Shows clinical classification of severity symptoms of asthma          -        27

Table 4.2    Shows the age and height of asthma evaluation rates    -        -        27

Table 4.3    Shows the normal predicted peak flow for males -        -        28

Table 4.4    Shows the normal predicted peak flow for females       -        -        28

Table 4.5    Shows the Severity, symptoms and explanation -        -        -        29

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

The definition of asthma is still controversial, but an appropriate definition is a precondition for addressing the issues considered in this study. The term “asthma” encompasses a disparate group of disorders which produce similar clinical effects that is, variable airflow obstruction and this has formed the basis of the definition of asthma. (Pekkanen, 2003) some current definitions also emphasize the importance of airways inflammation, although the relationship between airways inflammation and variable airways obstruction is not straight forward (Pekkanen, 2003). In some studies, asthma has been defined more restrictively in terms of the immunological or Pathophysiological mechanisms by which variable airflow obstruction is presumed to have occurred, for example, atopy or bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR).

Asthma is widely known as a multi-factorial respiratory disorder with both genetic and environmental underlying risk factors. Exposure to common allergens (including pollens, dust mites, and animal furs) and indoor and outdoor air pollution from various sources (e.g. traffic pollution, combustion of fossils and biomass fuels, workplace dust) have all been implicated as triggers of the disease. Second hand tobacco smoking is a confirmed risk factor in pediatric patients. Viral infections amajor cause of upper respiratory tract infections and “common cold,” are also a common risk factor in children. As noted, helming these infections is relatively common in Africa and are associated with bronchial hyper-responsiveness and asthma (Green, 2010); this is perhaps due to the presence of related raised immunoglobulin E (IGE) and a prominent the immune response.

Chronic respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, with asthma rated the most common chronic disease affecting children (Green, 2010). Globally, about 300 million people have asthma and current trends suggest that an additional 100 million people may be living with asthma by 2025 (Seaton et al, 2009). The world health organization (WHO) estimates about 250, 000 deaths from asthma every year, mainly in low and middle income countries (Platts-mills et al, 2000).  Just like with many other chronic diseases in Africa, the fast rate of urbanization has been linked to the increase in the burden of asthma and other allergic diseases.

Although, asthma may originate soon after birth, the natural history of the disease is poorly understood, many infants have episodes of wheezing associated with viral respiratory illness. Neither the pathogenesis of these episodes nor their relation to asthma has been completely elucidated (Adachi, 2002). In older children and adults, the prevalence of asthma is strongly correlated with serum (IGE) levels and with skin-test reactivity to allergens (Anderson, 2008), but in one study no such relation was evident between early wheezing and serum IGE levels at birth. Infants whohave respiratory illness with wheezing in the first year of life have lower levels of lung function before any lower respiratory illness develops than infants who do not have illness with wheezing.

Studies suggest that small airways predispose man y infants to wheezing in associated with common viral infections. However, it is possible that acutebronchial obstruction may have a variety of causes in early life and a minority of infants with asthma may co-exist with a larger group of infants with wheezing who have a more benign condition that is not medical by IGE. Older children with asthma have lower levels of lung function than children without asthma. It is not known whether the reduction in  lung function present before asthma develops, contribute to asthma and continue to be present later in life or whether educed lung function in children with asthma is the consequence of chronic airways inflammation.

 

1.2     Statement of the Study

Asthma is one of the commonest chronic diseases affecting at least 1in 10 people. It knows no prejudice, affecting people from all social cultural and ethnic backgrounds unlike tuberculosis, which one would expect to encounter in less privileged societies and coronary artery disease, which is a disease of influence. Therefore, no matter the healthcare giver (i.e doctor, nurse or pharmacist) practices, he/she will see patients with asthma every day. This interaction with asthmatic patients is often limited even in a medical setting to the medical or clinical effects and treatment of the disease. These are very well known, less well known and certainly seldom discussed are the quality of life, social and psychological consequences of asthma as a chronic illness.

 

1.3     Objectives of the Study

i.        To evaluate the infection rates of people with asthma in IkotEkpene.

ii.       To determine the effective control measures of the infection

iii.      To find possible remedies and cures for the asthmatic patients

iv.      To create awareness on the rates of the infection

  v.      To understand the infection rates of asthma and efficient control measure for each of  asthmatic patients

1.4     Research Questions

1.    Have you needed your quick-acting relief medication more than usual?

2.    What are the complications that can occur?

3.    What medications can be prescribed?

4.    How is asthma treated?

5.    Can sex trigger asthma?

6.     Is your asthma allergic?

7.    What is the nature or primary cause of the airways obstruction?

1.5   Significance of the Study

1.  To control the rate of asthma infection in both children and adults.

2.  To proffer solution to the infected individual.

3.  To create awareness on how to manage already affected persons.

4.  This study will assist parents/guardian to take proper care of their children.

5.   It will assist them to know the symptoms of this disease

6.  It will also help them to prevent and control the disease

7.  This study will equally assist parents to follow the instruction or advice giving to them by their doctor to take care of the children whenever they come across the disease

8.  It will help them to follow full dose medication by their doctor

9.  It will equally assist them to save the life of their children, not to die pre-maturely, this is also applicable for adults that are in the same condition.

1.6     Scope/Limitation of the Study

This present study focuses on the evaluation of infection rate of asthmatic patient and efficient control measures.

To evaluate and compare prevalence of infection rates of asthma in Ikot-Ekpene and in order to provide information that will help informed the planning of the public health response to the disease.

The researchers marred the completion of the work. The constraint on this study was the time frame of this project and also financial constraint, although, the period gave the researcher time to attempt data from different areas.

1.7     Definition of Terms

i.        Asthma: Asthma is a medical condition of the chest that makes breathing difficult.

ii.       Infection: The act or process of causing or getting a disease.

iii.      Evaluation: To form an opinion of the amount, value or quality of something after thinking about it carefully.

iv.      Rates: A measurement of the speed at which something happens.

v.       Control: The power to make decision about how a country, an area, an organization etc is run.

vi.      Efficient: Doing something well thoroughly with no waste of time or energy.

vii.     Trigger: Something that is the cause of a particular reaction or development especially a bad one.

viii.    Pediatric: The branch of medicine concerned with children and their diseases.

ix.      Episodes: An event, a situation, or a period of time in somebody’s life.

x.       Chronic: An illness that makes people feels extremely weak and tired, and that can last for a long period of time.

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
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