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PROJECT ID : 30730
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 28
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUNDWATER SAMPLE FROM MBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, AKWA IBOM STATE
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

Water is an essential ingredient of living beings in the universe, without it, the imagination of any sort of life on this planet futile and mirage. As the most essential commodity for human consumption water is one of the most important renewable resources, which must be prevented form deterioration in quality. various physicochemical parameters like ph, alkalinity, total hardness, total dissolved solid, calcium, magnesium,   nitrate, sulphate have a significant role in determining the portability of drinking water (Ahipathy and Puttaiah, 2006; Gawas et al., 2006; Gupta et al., 2004; Jeyraj et al., 2002; Jitendra et al., 2008; Patel and Ragothama 2005; Sankar et al., 2008; Udhayakumar et al., 2006; Venatasubramani et al., 2002; sirsath et al., 2006; Solanki, 2012; Tiseer et al.,  2008; Udhayakumar et al., 2006;  Venatasubramani et al., 2007; ) quality of surface and ground water is inadequate even for costummering living and is getting deteriorated due to unwise utilization, of water resouerces, dehumanizing manner of organization, industrialization and other developed activities. Today many rivers receive million litres of industrial effluents (Adekunle, 2009; Adhikari and Gupta, 2002; Jain et ai., 2003; Mahanta et al., 2004 Sharma  et al., Tyagi et al., 2000,), sewage domestic waste (Adnan et al., 2005; Prakash and somshekhar, 2006; Tanwire et al., 2003), agricultural waste (Demir et al., 2003; Fatta et al., 1999; Ikem et al., 2002) and land drainage etc. that cause degradation of water quality the accelerated pace of development and population growth has led to the scarcity of potable water.  

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

Title Page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Certification         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Dedication -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Acknowledgements        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1     Background of Study     -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Aim and Objective of the Study        -        -        -        -        -        2

1.3     Scope and Limitation of the Study   -        -        -        -        3

1.4     Definition of Terms       -        -        -        -        -        -        3

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

2.1     Introduction                   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        5

2.2     Classification of Water  -        -        -        -        -        -        6

2.2.1 Classification Based on Source         -        -        -        -        -        6

2.2.2 Classification Based on Conductivity         -        -        -        -        6

2.2.3 Physicochemical Properties of Water          -        -        -        -        8

2.2.4 Physical Properties of Water   -        -        -        -        -        8

2.2.5 Chemical Properties of Water  -        -        -        -        -        11

2.3     Effect of Water Pollution         -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.4     World health organization guidelines         -        -        -        -        13

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Material and Method     -        -        -        -        -        -        19

3.1     Materials    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

3.2     Methods     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

3.3     Sample and Sampling Methods        -        -        -        -        -        22

3.3.1 Method of Collection/Preservation of                  

Water Samples     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        22

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results and Discussion  -        -        -        -        -        -        24

4.1     Results for Samples       -        -        -        -        -        -        24

4.2     Discussion  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0     Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        32

5.1     Recommendations                   -        -        -        -        -        -        33

          References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

1.1     Background of Study

Water is extremely essential for survival of all living being water sources available for drinking and domestic purpose most posses high degree of purity and free from chemical contamination and microorganisms.

In Mbo most of all the population depend on groundwater as source of drinking water supply.

It is believed that ground water is clean and free from pollution than surface water. But, domestic sewage, solid waste dump and discharge of industrial effluents causes the groundwater to becomes polluted created health problem.

Ground water is the only alternative option even for he urban centers having well planned, designed and exacted water, supply system in town.

Various physicochemical parameters like PH, alkalinity, total hardness, total dissolved solid, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate have a significant role in determining the portability of drinking water (Alipathy and Puttaiah, 2006; Gawas et al., 2006; Gupta et al., 2004; Jeyraj et al., 2002; Jitendra et al., 2008; Patel and Ragathamah 2005; Tiseer et al., 2002; Sirsath et al., 2006; Solanki, 2012; Tirseer et al., 2008; Udhagakumar et al., 2006; Vankatasubramani et al., 2007). Keeping in view the aforesaid facts the pressure investigation is being proposed to evaluate the quality and stability of drinking water consumed by urban as well a rural people of Mbo Local Government Area by scientific study of physico-chemical properties in various samples of available drinking water.

1.2     Aim and Objective of the Study

This research work is aimed at:

1.     Determination of physico-chemical properties of Mbo stream

2.     Establishing the relationship between the water quality parameter in the stream.

3.     Assessing the effects of physic-chemical parameters on the measured physical parameters.

 

1.3     Scope and Limitation of the Study

This research project is to determine the physico-chemical properties of water.

It is limited to the study area of interest, due to finance and limited time, the research work will dwell mainly on the analysis of the physico-chemical properties of the water sample.

1.4     Definition of Terms

PH: Measures the activity of hydrogen ion (H+) in the water. It indicates the alkalinity and CO2 concentration of the water.

TOTAL HARDNESS: Is caused by multivalent metallic cations and is largely due to calcium and magnesium ions. The low and high value of hardness has advantages and disadvantages.

COLOUR: Water colour is due to the presence of inorganic which changes it original state of colourless to ions present.

ODOUR: Odour is recognized as a factor affecting acceptability of drinking water and food prepared from it.

TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLID: Consist of inorganic and organic substances. They include clay, any minerals, salt, metals, cations and anions dissolved in water.

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
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