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COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC AND AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ON LIVER ENZYMES OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS
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Science Lab. Technology

 

ABSTRACT

The effect of ethanolic extract (EE) and aqueous extract (AE) of Moringa oleiferaleaves on liver diagnostic of albino wistar rats was investigated. Twenty (20) rats weighing from 150- 200g were used. The rats were randomly divided into four groups of five animals each. Group 1 was the control group, administered with normal feed +20mls of distilled water, group 2 animals were sustained on normal feed+ distilled water+ 500mg/kg b.wt of AE, group 3 was given distilled water+ normal feed+ 500mg/kg b.wt of EE and group 4 were given (EE+AE) 500mg/kg b.wt + distilled water+ normal feed. The administration lasted for 21 days,after 1 week of acclimatization. All feeding were done ad-libitum. The result of the analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in ALT levels, which were higher in group 2, 3 and 4 when compared to the controls. The ALT levels in group 2 and 3 were not significantly different, but comparable as compared with the controls (Group 1). This result shows that the liver was not damaged so as to release much of the enzymes into the blood.The (EE) singularly and (EE +AE) in combination was able to protect the liver against injury; as against the AE alone.The leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera contains phytochemicals as reported and it is possible that these may be responsible for the hepatoprotective, pharmacologicl, antioxidant properties observed in the result of AST and ALT concerning the state of the liver.  Therefore the EE and EE+AE could be compounded or used in the treatment of liver diseases. Otherwise, the EE is more hepato protective than the AE and contains more phytochemicals, responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties. The leaf extracts did not significantly affect ALP, AST but ALT of the albino wistar rat.  

Key words:Liver enzymes, M oringa oleifera, Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE       -        -        -        -        -        -        i

CERTIFICATION         -        -        -        -        -        ii        DEDICATION     -          -        -        -        -        -        iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS     -        -        -        -        iv

ABSTRACT        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

TABLE OF CONTENTS        -        -        -        -        vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background information of the study         -        -        -        1
  2. Aims and objectives of the  study     -        -        -        7
  3. Scope and limitation of the study     -        -        -        8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1              Medicinal use of plants -        -        -        -        -        9

2.2              Description of Moringa oleifera        -        -        -        11

2.3              Scientific classification of Moringa  oleifera         -        -        12

2.4              Medicinal uses of Moringa  oleifera  -        -        -        13

2.5              Nutritional contents of Moringa  oleifera   -        -        14

2.6              Phytochemicals present in Moringa  oleifera       -        -        15

2.6.1           Alkaloids    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.6.2           Glycosides -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.6.3           Flavonoids  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.6.4           Saponins    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.6.5           Tannins      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        17

2.7              Serum liver function/clinical implications   -        -        18

2.7.1           Hepatoxicity and Assessment of liver damage     -        18

2.7.2           Function of the liver      -        -        -        -        -        19

2.7.3           Diseases if the liver        -        -        -        -        -        20

2.7.4           Symptoms of liver diseases     -        -        -        -        21

2.7.5           Disease condition associated with abnormal liver enzymes 21

2.8              Factors affecting liver enzymes level -        -        -        22

2.8.1           Nutritional status -        -        -        -        -        -        23

2.8.2           Health conditions           -        -        -        -        -        -        23

2.8.3           Drugs and other xenobiotics   -        -        -        -        24

2.9              Liver  Enzymes    -        -        -        -        -        -        25

2.9.1           Liver Function Tests (LFTS)   -        -        -        -        26

2.9.2           Alkaline Phosphatase  (ALP)  -        -        -        -        27

2.9.3           Alanine Transaminase (ALT)  -        -        -        -        29

2.9.4           Aspartate Transaminase (AST)        -        -        -        -        31

                   CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1              Materials    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        34

3.2               Methods    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

3.2.1           Sample collection and preparation of plant samples     -        36

3.2.2           Extraction of plant extract      -        -        -        -        37

3.2.3           Experimental Animals, Grouping and treatment of Animals  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

3.2.4           Collection of blood sample and preservation of serum- 40

3.2.5           Determination of  Alanine transaminase (ALT)   -        41

3.2.6           Determination of Aspartate transaminase(AST)  -        41

3.2.7           Determination of Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)    -        42

3.3              Statistical Analysis        -        -        -        -        -        -        42

CHAPTER FOUR:       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1              Results        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        44

4.2              Discussion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        45

 

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONAND REFERENCES

5.1              Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        49

5.2              Recommendation -        -        -        -        -        -        51

                   References 

                   CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background Information

The study of medicinal plants may be said to be the forerunner of modern sciences of chemistry and medicine. There are various plants thought to have medicinal properties but few of the plants or their phytochemical constituents have been proven by rigorous science and regulatory agencies such as the United States food and drug admi`nistration agencies or European food safety authority to have medicinal plants effects (Sofowora, 2008).

A medicinal plants is any plant in which one or more of its organs contain substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs (Evans, 2011; Ette, et al., 2013).

Today, many plants particularly herbs are used in the management of many diseases. The early development in the use of herbs dates back to ancient Egypt and  Grecce (Oke, 1996).A herb is defined as a plant whose leaves or seeds are used to give flavours to food or their scents or in medicine (WHO, 2003). In some of the western countries like china and India, the primary health care system enjoys supportive armament fromthe use of plants and plants products especially for the treatment of many diseases (Sofowara, 2006). In Nigeria, most communities especially in the south-south, south-east and south-west geopolitical zones broadly use herbal medicines to treat various diseases and ailments which includes; asthma, tuberculosis, ulcer, diarrhea, dysentery and diabetes mellitus. Medicinal plants have various effects on living systems, some are sedative, analgesic, antipyretics, cardioprotectives, anti-bacterials, anti-virals, anti-protozoals (Olaleye et al., 2006, Ette et al., 2015).Plants have been known to contain or posses abundant phytochemicals, anti-microbial and pharmacological active principles which includes; anthraquinone, flavonoids, saponin, polyphenols, tannins and alkaloids (Wu  et al., 2004).

Apart from the use of plant for medicinal purposes, Man also use plants as toxic compounds, arrow poisons and ordeal poison (Burkkitt, 1993). The usefulness of plant can therefore be ambivalent. If a pant is positively useful, it has some good attributes. It can be eaten, turned into healing medicine, example monodramyristica,starchytarplata indica,moringa oleifera are made into something for mans advantage. On the other hand, some plants are poisonous to the body especially when consumed in high amounts. The usefulness of what a plant can be put makes it necessary for adequate investigation to be done to find out not just the efficacy but also the toxicity and possible side effects or protective effect. (Ette, et al., 2013).

In Nigeria in particular, efforts are being made by government to bring together the traditional medicine practitioners. They are being advised to publish their herbs and roots for scientific documentation and testing so as to ascertain their efficacy. This is yielding result and some of them are now going to media to advertise their herbs. However, this is good because what should be most important to every well meaning person and every well meaning society is the well being of the people. Thus nothing offered for the well being of the people should be rejected.

There is hardly anyone who does not take herb daily. The early man must have recognized the essential needs of the body and the role of some herbs that he made it a daily routine to eat such herbs in their raw or cooked forms till they become known as vegetables to be eaten daily. The consumption of a variety of local herbs and vegetables by man is believed to contribute significantly to the improvement of human health in terms of prevention and cure of disease because plants have long served as a useful and rational source of therapeutic agents (Oke, 1996&Sofowara, 2008). In Nigeria, many plants have been used as herbal medicine to remedy disease and one of such plant is moringa oleifera.

Moringa oleifera belongs to the species of moringaceac family. Its leaves are rich of macro and micro nutrients including polyphenols, phenolic acids, vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids, and alkadloids (Loene et al., 2015). Moringa oleifera plant is used in nurturing both animal and human as an excellent nutritive supplement (Siddhuraju & Becker, 2003). It had been enduringly used as a traditional medicinal source and employed for the  treatment of many diseases, thus coined as “the miracle tree”. Subsequently, the leaves have been studied for its various therapeutic properties such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective and antifungal activities (Monica et al., 2010; Patel et al, 2010).

Previous studies by Pari and Kumar, 2002;showed that ethanol and aqueous extracts of Moringa oleiferaleaves can effectively protect hepatic tissue from tissue damage included by antitubercular drugs.Moringa oleifera is a small graceful deciduous tree with sparse foliage, often resembling a leguminous species at a distance when in flower but immediately recognized when in fruit.  The free grows to 8.0m high and 60.0cm. it is slender, deciduous, perennial tree to about 10.0m tall; rather slender with dropping branches; branches and stems brittle, with corky bark; leaves feathery, pale green, compound, fruit production is in march and April (Janick et al., 1979).

Liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals. In humans, it is located in the upper right guardant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification of various metabolites, protein  synthesis and the production of biochemicals necessary for digestion. Liver is a gland and plays a major role in metabolism with numerous functions in the human body, including regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cell (RBC), plasma protein synthesis hormone production and detoxification. It is an accessory digestive gland and produces bile, and alkaline compound which aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids. The gall bladder, small pouch that sits just under the livers stores bile produce by the liver. The  liver is a highly specialized  tissue consisting of most hepatocytes. It regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions including the sysnthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules many of which are necessary for normal vital functions (Abdel-Mish et al.,2010).

Liver enzymes are enzymes present in the liver which help accelerate the chemical reactions within the liver. These liver function tests (LFTs,) include; tests for bilirubin, a breakdown product of haemoglobin and ammonia a protein byproduct that is converted into urea by the liver before being excreted by the kidneys. Enzymes that are also often measured in LFTs includes gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT); alanine amino-transferase (ALT or SGPT); aspartate amino trasferase (AST or SGOT); and alkaline phosphatease (ALP). LFTs also may include prothrombin time (PT), a measure of how long it takes for the blood to cloth. Liver function tests are used to aid in the differential diagnosis of liver disease and injury, and to help monitor response to treatment.

1.2     Aim and Objectives of the Study

1.2.1  Aim of the study

The aim of this research work is to determine the comparative effect of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extract of moringa oleifera on some liver enzymes of  albino  wistar rats.

1.2.2  Objectives of the Study

(i)      To determine the effect of Moringa oleiferaaqueous extract on some liver enzymes of albino wistar  rats.

(ii)     To evaluate the effect of Moringa oleiferaethanolic leaves extract on some liver enzymes of albino wistar rats.

(iii)    To evaluate the comparative effects of the combined ethanolic and aqueous extracts on some liver enzymes of albino wistar rats.

1.3     Scope and Limitation of the Study

          The scope of the study involved the following;

(i)      The treatment of the different groups feed with graded doses of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Moringa oleiferaregularly and in combination for 21 days.

           (ii)     To monitor the weight changes of the experimental animals.

(iii)    To observe the physical appearance, behavior and monitoring the feeding pattern (food intake) of the experimental animals, during their administration.

(iv)    To determine the serum level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in albino wistar rats subjected to the treatment with aqueous and ethanol extracts of Moringa oleiferaleaves.

However, due to time constraint, high financial implication and lack of adequate facilities, it is impossible to assay other parameters associated with liver function.

 

 

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