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ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF BIODEGRADABLE SUBSTANCES AND TRACE METALS IN WASTE DISPOSED SOIL
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

Solid waste is a major enviromental threat to most Nigerian cities. The rapid population growth industrialization, technological change and trends generated solid waste chanllenges. These and other factors such as inadequate infrastructures weak enviromental legislation protection enforcement and management strategies, in high volume of waste generation, large amount of well as indescriminate disposal without preoper management. To address these chanllenges, the state government provide a site in 1992 at Ugwaji for disposing and managing the wastes. However, the standard of the dump site and the management strategies fall short of enviromentally accepted standard. This research examined the heavy metals considered to be hazardous to human and enviromental health care were chosen for analysis in soil sample, using atomic absorbption spectrophotometer (AAS) machine at ecochem scientific labortory. Targeted sampling method was used in the collection of the soil sample from the dump sites. The reseach revealed that the soil is heavly contaminated with lead (pb), cadmium (cd), coper (cu), iron (fe), manganes and Nickel (NI) with contamination factors as 19.89, 16.26, 25.06, 270.5, 245.25 and 1.20 respectively. With a critical review, the study recommends more efficient and enviromentally, friendly method of waste disposal like the sanitary landfill to be used in dump sites.

Key word:- Soil, biodegradable, heavy metals, pollutants

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title pages     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Approval       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Dedication     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Acknowledgment     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Abstract         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Table of Contents     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi

List of Table -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           viii

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the Study.   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem.   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           4

1.3       Objectives of the Study.                  -           -           -           -           -           -           5

1.4       Significance of the Study                -           -           -           -           -           -           5

1.5       Scope of the Study   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           6

1.6       Definitions of Terms                       -           -           -           -           -           -           6

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURES

2.1       Introduction  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           8

2.2       Soil Definition and Components   -           -           -           -           -           -           10

2.3       Soil Quality   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.4       Soil Function            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           11

2.5       Soil Degradation Threat      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

2.6       The concept of soil sustainability -           -           -           -           -           -           14

2.7       Soil forming Factors            -           -          -           -           -           -           -           14

2.7.1   Parental Material      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.7.2   Physical Disintegration       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.7.3   Climate          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16

2.7.4   Topography   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16

2.7.5   Time   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           16

2.8       Soil Properties and Processes        -           -           -           -           -           -           17

2.8.1   Soil Structure           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           18

2.8.2   Soil PH           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           18

2.8.3   Reduction      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

2.8.4   Moisture Content     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           19

2.9       Processes controlling chemical Fate in Soil        -           -           -           -           20

2.9.1   Biological Processes            -           -           -           -           -           -    -           -           20

2.9.2   Chemical Processes -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           22

2.9.3   Physical Processes  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           23

2.10    Soil Classification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           23

2.10    Soil Nutrients            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           29

2.11    The Mechanism of Nutrient Uptake          -           -           -           -           -           29

2.12    Uses of soil   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           31

2.13    Soil Degradation      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           32

2.14    Soil Pollution           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           32

2.15    Health Effects           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           33

2.16    Ecosystem Effects on Soil  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           34

2.17    Heavy Metal Contamination          -           -           -           -           -           -           36

2.18    Laws and Conventions on Soil      -           -           -           -           -           -           40

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

3.1       Sample Collection    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           43

3.2       Sample Preparation  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           43

3.3       Sampling Techniques Used            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           44

3.4       Method of Data Collection -           -           -           -           -           -           -           44

3.5       Method of Analyses            -           -           -           -                   -           -           -           44

3.6       Experimental Procedure     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           44

3.7       Analytical Techniques        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           45

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Data Presentation     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           47

4.2       Data Analysis and Interpretation   -           -           -           -           -           -           50

4.3       Summary of Results -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           51

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       SUMMARY FINDING, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary of Finding            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           53

5.2       Conclusion    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           56

5.3       Recommendations   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           58

            References    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           60

 

LIST OF TABLE

Table 4.1: Percetage concentration of oxides of element detected in soil from various study location (mg/kg)

Table 4.2:- The analysis in the table above the f calculated (10.28332) is greater than f critical (2.420523)

Table 4.3:- Showing values of analyzed heavy metals compared to NESREA value

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Solid  waste is a major enviromental threat to most Nigeria cities. The rapid population growth. Industrialization and technological change and patterns have increased solid waste chanllenges. These factors and several other such as inadequate infrastructure. Weak enviromental administration and management are responsible for ineffective waste management services. Solid waste generation and management are processes dependent upon a number of factors. These factors are human, population, economic growth of the society and her citizens, level of technological development of the society, culture and habit of the citizens.the generation of solid waste is one of such problem created by rapid population growth coupled with inefficient waste disposal techniques and worsened by inconsistent waste management policies.

Ojiaku.,(1994) reported that uncontrolled solid waste disposal on land contaminate the soil and is highly related to health hazard, consequently requires adequate mitigation measures.

Due to improvement of quality of life of Nigerians from the 1970’s an attitude of  robust appetite for the consumption of all sorts o0f artificially packaged food manufactured locally and abroad and the increased industrial, clinical, agricultural and manufacturing activities brought about an increas in the generation of solid waste in Nigeria.

Government, private firms, individuals, industries and market people are experiencing difficulty in their commitment to control the degree or amount of solid waste generation in Nigeria and ensure adequate and efficient management of generated wastes. These bodies mentioned have only paid lip services to the problem of solid waste generation and it’s possible or more efficient way of managing such waste to reduce or avoid it’s impact mostly on the quality of soil. Solid waste has been creating unsightly condition espcially in Enugu urban where it has been a source of worry. The enviroment of the city including it’s streams, rivers and soil has become a dumping site for solid waste. One could easily see the  menace of solid waste on the soil in the study area and it’s far reaching effects on the soil quality and human health. This soil may show very high nitrate and nitrate concentration. The unending case of dumping solid waste on the soil without proper management may eventually pollute and degrade the soil.

The waste comprises of degradable and non-degradable materials like kitchen waste, empty cans, textile materials, hospital waste, chemical lumps from industries and factories, brewery waste among others are seen in many dumpsites.

It is this callous attitude or feeling or individual habit, improper management, i don’t care attitude” after all it is not at my backyard” the concern for the  health of the people and crop tield by ensuring good, safe and qualty soil for agriculture that gave rise to this research work. The study is geared toward comparing and carrying out  a systematic soil quality examination and looking into the effect of soil waste on soil quality in Ugwuaji area as well as examining the parameters of soil pollution (Sheal, 1969).

 

1.2     Statementof the Problem

Wasters are being disposed recklessly on the site without adequate management and concern for the enviroment. Due to the uncontrolled dumping and disposal of solid waste in Ugwuaji site and lack of expected management of solid waste in the area, it is expected that the solid quality has been adversely affected. This project examine the effects of solid waste on heavy metal..

It is believe that the problem of improper solid waste management might have affected the soil and the surrounding area of Ugwuaji site. Thus there is an urgent need to investigate the  effect on soil.

 

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of biodegrable waste on the quality of soil in Ugwuaji dump site. To achieve this, the following objectives should be addressed;

1.  To examine the levels of heavy metals found in samples around the dump site.

2.  To determine the relationship between the levels of the various heavy metals and distance from the dumpsite

3.  To compare the heavy metal concentration in the dump site and compare the values to the NESREA threshold limit

 

1.4     Significance of the Study

This study is consciously aimed at looking into the effect or impact of solid waste on the quality of soil, it’s effects on the health of residents, crop production, protection of the enviroment and the biodiversity caused by improper disposal of biodegrable substances.

Furthermore, the study will establish traces of effect, treatment procedure, best disposal method and permissible quality content as recommended by W.H.O and other standard regulatory bodies.

The study is significant because it will also bring awareness to the public ( Enugu urban and enviroment) the imlpication of reckless dispoasl of solid waste, the effects of solid waste in soil quality and go a long way in designing appropriate solid waste management method by eswama

 

1.5     Scope of the Study

The study assessed the impact of biodegrable substance on soil quality in Ugwuaji dumpsite. It entailed carrying out laboratory investigations on soil quality. To test the parameters affected by biodegrable substance in different soil samples within Ugwuaji dumpsite which is the study area. Some selected trace metals were investigated to know the extent of deposit on the soil which are lead,cadmium, copper, iron, manganese and nickel.

The study also looked at the soil quality standards for habitat and agriculture, as well as for other land uses.

The collection of samples in limited to Ugwuaji dumpsite. The Enugu agricultural soil was used as a control site while Ugwuaji soil was used as experimental site because of the bulk of solid waste deposited on the soil of Ugwuaji dumpsite area. Hence the study was aimed at determining the various pollutant in soil  and comparing them with NESREA threshold standards.

1.6     Definition of Terms

  • Biodegrable:

Is a substance or chemical that is biode. Gradable can be change to a harmless natural state by the action of bacteria and will therefore not damage the enviroment. (Ojiaku 1994). Refuge are dumped (Hans Jenny 2005)

  • Chemical processess

The soil contains a complex mixture of chemical and togather with the physical enviroment create condition that encourage a wide variety of chemical reaction to occur (Marshall, T, and Holmer SW., 2007)

  • Soil:

Is a natural body that consist of layers composed primarily of minerals, which differ from their parent materiuals inthe texture, structure, consistency, color, chemical, biological and other physical characteristics.(Brandy, 1999).

  • Soil pollution:

Soil pollution can be defined as the contamination of soil of a particular region.

 

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