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PROJECT ID : 2815c
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EVALUATION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM RECOGNITION VIRUS INFECTED CELLS AND ABSOLUTELY ELIMINATION FROM THE BODY USING CURRENT TECHNIQUES
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT.

DESPITE effective anti-retroviral  therapy, human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV 1) in all infected individual as a quiescent, which as integrated DNA within the genome of the infected cell, are not targeted by antiretroviral therapy nor by the host immune response, while the majority of these latent HIV-1 proviruses are defective, A fraction of these proviruses retain the ability to replicate, upon the interruption or cessation of (AT) Antiretrovirus therapy, stochastic  Reactivation of replication competent latent proviruses lead to rebound viremia within  week, the population latently infected, resting CD4 T lymphocytes is very stable ,with a half life estimated 44 months therefore this table persistent latent reservoir of replication  Competent HIV- 1 is the major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. HIV  Latency reversing agent will recognize HIV gene expression, during  Elimination latently infected CD4 lymphocytes via viral cytopathic Effects or clearance by immune system. Further more ,the quantitative approach  described herein will facilitate future identification and characterization of candidate latency reversing agents with the goal of eliminating the HIV1.

 

Key words: CD4 counts, viral load, HIV patients

  • Targeting pathways involve in maintaining HIV quiescence with pharmacological compound such as PKC activators, HDAC and BET protein inhibitors may be important in the shock and kill strategy to deplete the HIV reservoir.
  •  Early ART limits the establishment of an HIV reservoir and is likely to exploited as a means of achieve either eradication or functional cure.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page -------------------------------------------------------------------------- i

Declaration --------------------------------------------------------------------------ii

Approval Page ----------------------------------------------------------------------iii

Dedication ---------------------------------------------------------------------------iv

Acknowledgment --------------------------------------------------------------------v

Abstract ------------------------------------------------------------------------------vi

Table of Contents ------------------------------------------------------------------vii

Key Words ----------------------------------------------------------------------------x

Lists of Table------------------------------------------------------------------------viii

List of figures ------------------------------------------------------------------------ix

CHAPTER ONE:

1.0     Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------1

1.1     Background of the Study -------------------------------------------------- 1

1.2     Objectives of the Study -----------------------------------------------------3

1.3     Significance of the study ----------------------------------------------------4

1.4      Research questions -----------------------------------------------------------5

1.5     Research Hypothesis----------------------------------------------------------5

1.6     Limitation of the Study -------------------------------------------------------6

1.7     Definition of terms -----------------------------------------------------------7

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Review of the related literature----------------------------------------------9

2.1     The Integumentary System: -------------------------------------------------9

2.1     Non Specific Immune (Innate Immunity): --------------------------------10

2.2     The third line of defence ----------------------------------------------------14

2.3     How infected HIV cells are being recognized by immune system. ---17

2.4     Elimination of HIV latency reservoir --------------------------------------20

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Methodology ------------------------------------------------------24

3.1     Review of Laboratory Method ---------------------------------------------24

3.2     Sample Collection------------------------------------------------------------25

3.3     Acute stage Diagnosis Method---------------------------------------------26

3.4     Experimental Design --------------------------------------------------------27

3.5     Experimental Analysis ------------------------------------------------------29

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1     Result, Analysis and Discussions ----------------------------------------30

4.2     Presentation of Result -----------------------------------------------------30

4.3     Analysis of Result --------------------------------------------------------34

4.4     Summary of Result ------------------------------------------------------35

4.5     Discussion of Result ------------------------------------------------------36

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation --------------------------38

          Summary of Findings ------------------------------------------------------38

          Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------------------39

          Recommendation --------------------------------------------------------40

          References ---------------------------------------------------------------42

          Appendix -----------------------------------------------------------------44

LIST OF TABLE

Table 4.1    Distribution of Age at Different interval with CD4 positivity in case group

Table 4.2: Gender distribution in CD34 positivity in case group

Table 4.3: Gender distribution in CD4 cell contact groups of CD4 positive patients in case group

Table 4.4: Frequency Distribution of Gender and Age intervals according to  CD4  Positive Patients

Table 4.5: Linear correlation of viral load and CD4 cell count value in CD4 positive patients treatment group (n=73)

Table 4.6:  Linear comparison of viral load distribution according to Gender in  CD4 positive patients treatment group (n=73)

LIST OF FIGUREs

Figure 1.The lymphatic vessels all over the body carrying the immune system for immediate response

LIST OF FIGUREs

Figure 1.The lymphatic vessels all over the body carrying the immune system for immediate CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

This chapter present a brief description of immune system and the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) progression and the direct techniques used in diagnosis.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The human immune deficient Virus (HIV) is the virus that cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition that slowly destroy the body immune system and makes the body vulnerable to infection the virus is typically called human immune deficiency virus (HIV) because it destroys the immune system of individual which is responsible for protecting the individual from disease.  The immunodeficiency associated with, HIV infection can be enormous, and it’s the major cause of death, due to the disfunction of human system the problem with HIV is, sits neurological dementa complex.  HIV in a family virus is known for latency persistent virema, infection of the nervous system and weak.  Not immune system, human  immunodiffiency virus (HIV) is small ultramicroscopic organism that infect living things and uses them to make copies of itself when one’s immune system is damaged by HIV take place (Gallants, 1999), HIV was first recognised in 1981 in Homo sexual men in New York city.  In the United States the HIV is known to have originated from chimpanzees transmission from chimps to human.  (Thomas, 2001).

Initially, there was wild speculation about what might be the cause of HIV but in 1982, the centre for disease control had convincing epidemiological evidence that HIV was caused by a new infectious agents.  Dulbecco (1983) located small quantities of the new virus moved lymphadenopathy virus (LAM) but enough to be used an antigen blood test which showed HIV patient were infected with the virus.  WHO (1997) responded that the number of patients living with HIV has escalated, a figure of 900 was confirmed by May 1999.  In African HIV was in Nigeria it was first responded in 1986, among commercial sex workers in Lagos and Calabar.  In 2003 the seroprevalence has been on the increase, despite the comprehensive and successful prevention effort in among part of the world, million new HIV infection was expected to have occurs in 2003 alone, which could have been contributed by an estimated 9.020 to 10,000 infection per day.  Currently, the health problem in Nigeria considering reports from various hospitals place HIV infection in Nigerian at a very serious state, the potential and propensity for widespread is enormous and debilitating and negative effect in the economy, the population category affected the working class and the dependent which constitute the penultimate individuals to the working class, HIV infections in this direction and orientation should be healed as a national emergency in Nigeria, meanwhile, Dr Robert Gallo’s laboratory begin recovering a virus from HIV patient and living in the science journal (Finzi D, 2006).

A number of these viral isolated was introduced together into continuous call cultures to see if a strain of the virus could replicate in the cells one did replicates and Gallos named the virus (HILV) T-lymphotropic viruses (Neser, 2001) by 2004, it was shown that many asymptomatic people was infected with virus and could transmits it and that the epidemic was for more extensive than previously suspected.  Blood test was generally available for routine testing to doriate blood, transfusion and products prepared from pooled blood (peiperls, 1995).

 

1.2     OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

1.  To eliminate HIV latency reservoir in infected cells most reliable one assaying HIV and understand anti retroviral drugs dose that should be taken since the drugs limitation effect of the drugs side effect or incomplete viral suppression particularly in viral anatomically sanctuaries

2.   To encourage good ART administrative for effective action as individuals are expose to the risk of HIV.

3.   To be able to generate report within specific period of time

4.   To create awareness on the modern techniques on the latency removal from the cell.

 

1.3     SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY

1.  This study is significant in that, will provide means of future functional cure of HIV.

2.  It also help in reducing pressure by enlightening people the study create reading material on the process of  researching for the lasting cure of HIV.

3.  This research with limited knowledge of HIV latency and the application of combination of active therapy for reactivation of latency and eradication.

 

  1. RESEACH QUESTIONS

IN THE CLEAR STUDY THE FOLLOWING QUESTION HAS BEEN ASKED.

  • Is it possible to reactivate the virus in latent infected cells by using histonedeacetylase – amic acid combines with inhibitor, example nucleoside and ziddouvdine?
  • If so, is it possible to detect the total viral load or his number of latent infected cells being reduced or completely eradication using shock and kill approach or kick and kill strategy?
  • If so, can this discovery give hope for functional care of HIV in future?

 

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

This hypothesis will guide the study scientifically to arrives at a logical conclusion.

The reactivation of virus in latent reservoir using histonedeacetylasamic acid bring about the understanding of viral in the cells and identification.

There in a significant relationship between complete eradication of viral load reservoir using shock and kill and kill with modern techniques.

 

1.6     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This work was carried out in UDUAK ABASI CLINIC located at Ikot Ekpene road Abak, so the research of this nature cannot be accomplished without same constraints, this constraint posed a lot of limitation to his work.

1.  Duration for the research work was relatively short.

2.  Stress emanated from other academic activities was also another challenge

3.  Financial constraint poses another challenges.

4.  The Most information gathered through standard hospital/clinics which need official permission into laboratory for continuous investigation

5.  Little material are also available because the study is relatively new.

1.7     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Immune System: Is a network of calls defending the body against attacked by foreign invaders. (Parker, 2009).

Virus: A virus in small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.  (Michael, H. 1989).

Latency: Is the ability of a pathogenic virus to die dormant within a cell of organisms.  (Gideon Saar 2011)

Reservoir: Is a storage space for fluids (cells of the body where HIV is able to hide or persist), nursing, and allied health, seventh edition, by (Saunders, 2003).

NK: Natured killer, (Saksela, 1980)

Vaccination: Artificial active immunity who (2017)

Interferon: A protein released by organisms usually in response to the entry of virus that is property of inhibiting virus replication.  (Chris, 1977).

Oedemia: An accumulate of an excessive amount of waters fluid in cells tissues in cells, tissue or serious cavities.

Fibroblast: A cells in connective tissue that produced collage and other fibers.

Collagen: The main structural protein found in skin and other connective tissue.

Cytotoxic factor: Biochemical molecule capable of destroy in virus production.

Tumor: Swelling park of the body cells, classic sign of inflammation.

Cytokines: Are cells signalling molecules that acid cell it cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of cell towards sites of inflammations, infection and trauma

Granulysin: Is a substance released by cytotoxic T-cells (CDB) when they are attached to infected body cells.  It function to create holes in the large cells membrane end destroy it.

Perforin: A protein released by killer cells of the immune system.

 

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