List of Departments
   

 

DETAILS

 

PROJECT ID : 27745
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 49
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF CNIDOSCOLUS ACONITIFOLIUS AND TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS
()
Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the phytochemical constituents of Cnidoscolius aconitifolius and Telfairia occidentalis. The result obtained from quantitative analysis shows that flavnoids in Cnidoscolus aconitifolius recorded a higher value of 3.675+0.034mg/100g than Telfairia occidentalis with 3.300+0.008mg/100g. Phenol followed in value with 49.550+0.027mg/100g in Cnidoscolus aconitifolius  and 45.133+0.036mg/100g in  Telfairia occidentalis and glycosides had a value of 0.118+0.010mg/100g in Cnidoscolus aconitifolius while the least value of glycoside was observed in Telfairia occidentalis which was 0.0208+0.003mg/100g. Due to their many medicinal properties there is enormous scope for future research on Telfairia occidentalis and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius to  further foster newer leads for modern drugs design.

 

Key words: Phytochemical, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Telfairia occidentalis

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

CERTIFICATION         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

DEDICATION     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT       -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

ABSTRACT-       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

TABLE OF CONTENT          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1     Background of the study-                 -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Aims and objective of the study        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.3     Scope and limitation of the study     -        -        -        -        4

1.4     Significance of the study         -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.5     Definition of terms         -        -        -        -        -        -        5

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Classification of Cnidoscolus acnoitifolius -        -        -        -        7

2.2     Description of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius -  -        -        -        8

2.3     Uses of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius     -        -        -        -        10

2.4     Telfairia occidentialis -   -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.4.1  Classification of Telfairia occidentalis        -        -        -        -        13

2.4.2  Description of Telfairia occidentialis -        -        -        -        14

2.4.3  Uses and Health Benefits of Telairia occidentalis -        -        17

2.5     Phytochemicals    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

2.5.1  Flavonids    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

2.5.2  Phenol        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

2.5.3  Glycosides  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

2.6     Actions of Phytochemicals      -        -        -        -        -        33

2.6.1 Anti-oxidant         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

2.6.2  Hormonal Action           -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

2.6.3  Stimulation of Enzymes -        -        -        -        -        -        34

2.6.4  Interference with DNA Replication   -        -        -        -        34

2.6.5  Anti-bacteria Effect        -        -        -        -        -        -        34

2.6.6  Physical Action    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

2.6.7  How to Derive Phytochemicals         -        -        -        -        -        35

 

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1     Materials, reagent and methods        -        -        -        -        -        37

3.1.1  Materials    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        37

3.1.2  Reagents     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

3.2     Methods     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

3.2.1  Collection of Sample     -        -        -        -        -        -        38

3.2.2  Preparation of Sample   -        -        -        -        -        -        39

3.3     Test for Phytochemicals          -        -        -        -        -        -        39

3.3.1  Quantitative Test for Glycoside        -        -        -        -        -        39

3.3.2  Quantitative Test for Flavoniod        -        -        -        -        40

3.3.3  Quantitative Test for Phenol   -        -        -        -        -        41

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT AND DISCUSSION       

4.1     Results        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        44

4.2     Discussion  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        44

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        47

5.2     Conclusion -         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        48

5.3     Recommendation -         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        48

          References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

All over the world, nations invest in Science, Technology and health, Education in order to produce scientist, engineers, medical doctors, technologist as well as health technicians and generally a scientific literate society. Meaningful engagement of this cadre of science, technology, medical man power translates into industrial and technological growth which is the hallmark of national development in our world today. Much concern has been expressed over the state of science and technology impact at all levels of endeavors in Nigeria (Ogunleye, 1999). This concern arises from the realization of the fact that the nation cannot develop her human and material resources if she does not have a pool of adequately trained and skilled science and technology based man power.

In Nigeria, the national health policy places a lot of emphasis on sustainable and affordable health policy. At each health level primary, secondary and tertiary appropriate targets we set for effective health care reforms. Immense benefits have been derived by man from using medicinal herbs in diseases management because they are relatively safer, more affordable and sometimes offer better therapeutic value then synthetic drugs (UNESCO,  1998). The increase discovery of more medical plants has demand for increased scientific scrutiny of their bioactivity so as to provide data that will help physician and patient make wise decision before using them.

In Nigeria, recently there has been a wide use of the leaves of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius which is commonly called Chaya or tree Spinach. The leaves are commonly consumed as vegetable added to daily foods and has also served as medical purpose, however it’s toxicological effects is yet to be fully evaluated in our environment. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is a member of the family of plants called “Eupbobiacea” it grows suitable well in all types of soil and barren land. Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is a versatile plant owing to its short gestation period, excellent regeneration capacity and long productive life.

1.2     Aim and Objective of the Study

1.2.1  Aim of the Study

The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical compositions of cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Telfaira occidentalis.

1.2.2  Objectives of the Study

          The objective of this study were to:

1.  To examine the phytochemical compositions of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius.

2.  To determine the phytochemical compositions of Telfaira occidentalis.

1.3     Scope and Limitation

1.3.1  Scope of the Study

This research is focused on the laboratory analysis of the photochemical composition of cnidoscolus aconitifolius and Telfaira occidentalis, the phytochemical to be examine includes: Flavonoids, Phenols, Steroids and Glycosides.

1.3.2  Limitation of the Study

Due to financial constraint and lack of laboratory equipment, this research work is limited to the following photochemical: Flavonoids, Glycosides, Steroid, Phenol.

1.4     Significance of the Study

This research study which is to find out the photochemical composition of Telfaira occidentalis, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius will be of importance to researchers who intend to carry out further studies on Telfaira occidentalis and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius as this work will add to the already existing literature.

1.5     Definition of Terms

          Photochemicals:

Photochemical are checmicals that occur naturally in plants. Phyto means “plant” in Greek (Boberg , 2010).

It can also be said to be a large variety of compounds made by plant but it is mainly used to describe those compounds that may affect human health (Ayoola, 2008).

          Cnidoscolus aconitifolius:

This is a locally consumed vegetable leaves that is commonly called “Chaya or tree Spinach”

          Telfairia occidentalis: 

This is an important shape vegetable which its plant produces luxuriant edible green leaves rich of iron and vitamins grown in Nigeria.

It is commonly called “Fluted Pumpkin” the efiks called Uboŋ while the Igbos called it Ugu.

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
Untitled Document