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PROJECT ID : 27739
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NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF ODUSA LEAF (PIPER GUINEENSE) AS COMPONENT OF OUR DIET
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress oxidative damage to tissues are involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases. Many secondary metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities improving the effect of oxidative stress on tissues. Medicinal plants contain bioactive compounds capable of preventing and fighting oxidative related diseases, Phytochemical composition of Piper guineense extract and its alleviation of oxidative stress. The qualitative analyses showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, polyphenol, phenols and terpenoids in both aqueous and ethanol extract while tannin and resins were not detected in both aqueous and ethanol extract. This indicated that biological active compounds of Piper guineense are more polar and could serve as source of bioactive compounds for nutrition and therapeutic purposes.

 

KEY WORDS:

Nutritional, Piper guineense, Analysis, Component, Diet

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page             -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Declaration        -      -       -      -       -      -       -        -       -       -   

Certification         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -    

Dedication            -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -          -  

Acknowledgment -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -           - 

Abstract               -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -           - 

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -          -  

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of the problem

1.3     Objective of the study

1.4     Significance of the study

1.5     Scope/limitation of the study

1.6        Definition of terms 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Medicinal Plant

2.2       The Plant

2.2.1    Piper guineense

2.2.2    Scientific Classification of Piper guineense

2.2.3    Geographical Distribution of Piper guineense

2.2.4     Description of Piper guineense

2.2.5      Economic Importance of  Piper guineense

2.2.6      Chemical Composition of Piper guineense

2.2.7      Medicinal Uses of Piper guineense

2.2.8       Previous Chemical and Pharmacological Investigation on Piper guineense

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

3.1     Material

3.1.1    Plant Material

3.1.2    Instruments/Equipment

3.1.3    Chemicals

3.1.4    Reagents

3.2        Methodology

3.2.1     Laboratory Method

3.2.2     Sample Material Collection

3.2.3      Sample Preparation

3.2.4       Experimental Procedure

3.2.5       Experimental Analysis

3.3          Preliminary Qualitative Phytochemicals Analysis

3.3.1       Test for Alkaloids

3.3.2        Test for Glycosides

3.3.3       Test for Saponin

3.3.4        Test for Tannin

3.3.5         Test for Flavonoids

3.3.6         Test for Steroids

3.3.7         Test for Polyphenol

3.3.8          Test for Resins

3.3.9           Test for Phonol

3.3.10         Test for Terpenoids

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1     Presentation of results

4.2     Analysis of Results

4.3     Discussion of Results

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

          References

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

          Modern science recognizes that life is based on a complex and finely tuned network of reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions that are under homeostatic control. Cells or organism are constantly subjected to factors that can alter this redox balance, often resulting in overt generation of free radicals (Nedelco et al., 2004). A free radical is an atom or molecule that has one or more unpaired electron(s) and is capable of independent existence (Halliwell et al., 1995). Its consequent tendency to engage in electron transfer reactions with other compounds in a bid to attain a stable state makes it highly reactive (Murray et al., 2000). The resultant effect is the destruction or inactivation of the molecules to which the electrons were transferred or removed.

Most importantly, the deleterious effect of free radicals is enhanced by their initiation of a chain reaction mechanism. The most biological significant free radicals are the reactive oxygen species (ROS). (Murray et al., 2000), which include hydroxyl radical (HO-) and superoxide free radical (O-2). The biochemistry of reactive Oxygen species is an important field with practical implications because whereas Oxygen is an essential component of all living organisms, the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates seems to be common place in all aerobically metabolizing cells (Ahmed, 1995).

Reactive Oxygen species (ROS) are formed due to various endogenous and exogenous factors: the utilization of oxygen during aerobic respiration and exposure to pollutants, photochemicals Smog, industrial chemicals and radiation from the environment (Krishnaiah et al., 2007). Among the deleterious reaction of ROS are oxidation of proteins, DNA, steroidal compounds and peroxidation of the cell membrane’s unsaturated lipids to form unstable hydroperoxides (Ahmed, 1995). Oxidative stress, a process where highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and toxic, free radical are produced and sustained, is at the root (pathogenesis) of many degenerative diseases including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases (CHDs), obesity, hypertension and cancers; some physiological processes like ageing/senescence and cell death/cytotoxic actions (Kaneto et al, 2005). It is also said to contribute immensely to the deterioration and propagation of complications observed in some   infectious diseases like malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.

          These damaging effects can however be halted, inhibited delayed or even prevented by a group of biological substances known as antioxidants (Vaye and Aviran, 2001). Antioxidants are themselves reducing agents that possess the capacity to neutralize the oxidants (free radicals/ROS) either by donating electron to the oxidants or their outright removal from the system (Thurnham, 1996, Bynes and Thorpe, 1999). Achinewn et al, (1995) have accordingly reported their use in the improvement of immune function and lowering the risk of cell dysfunction, heart disease, cancer and diabetes mellitus. For instance, treatment with antioxidants such as N-acety-1-cysteine, vitamins C and E in obese diabetic’s rat exerted beneficial effects (Kaneto et al, 2006) and vitamin E alone was also used to reverse platelet dysfunction in diabetic subjects (Jain et al., 1998).

          Incidentally, many herbs and leafy vegetables are reportedly rich in diverse antioxidant component. The medicinal and nutrients roles of these herbs and leafy vegetables have largely been attributed to their antioxidant components. Osagie and Eka (2004) have opened that antioxidants are parts of the protective components present in plants including phytochemicals. A survey of 35 medicinal plants by McCune and John (2002) also revealed that the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of these plants support their contribution to a lifestyle historically low in the incidence of diabetes in North America (Canada) and also that 89% of the extracts of these plants have antioxidant activity significantly greater than modern dietary components. Cells convene substantial resources to protect themselves from the potentially damaging effects of ROS. Several vitamins and micronutrients, which are active at quenching these free radical species or required for their enzymic detoxification, as well as enzymes such a superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT), constitute a first line of defense against ROS and are generally referred to as primary antioxidants. Oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and Lipids appears to stimulate the systematic activity of “Repair” enzymes regarded as secondary antioxidant defenses that are involved in the removal of non-functional cell components or in the actual repair of damaged biomolecules (Ahmed 1995).

          When the cellular generation of oxidants (reactive species) overwhelms or by passes these defenses a pathophysiological condition known as oxidative stress is said to arise. Pathological processes mediated by this stress include the leakage of cell membranes, dysfunction of mitochondria, depletion of glutathione and disturbed redox states of cells and the depletion of ATP. These processes which affect cells and DNA lead to aging, tumor promotion and cancer, inflammatory diseases, Post-ischemic injury and numerous serious ailments. Lipid peroxidation is a major mechanism of cells injury in tissues and organisms subjected to oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radicals are capable of initiating lipid peroxidation by abstracting hydrogen atom from fatty acid side chain (Kanner et al., 1997). The implication of oxidative stress in far more pathologies and disorders than previously imagined has demonstrated the need for the development of more potent antioxidants.

Nature has been a potential source of a variety of plants with diversified medicinal values and herbs were used for the treatment of various ailments for thousands of years and plant based drugs continue to play an essential role in the primary health care of 80% of the world’s under-developed and developing countries (Grover and Vats, 2001). Plant based foods generally are considered important sources of antioxidants in diets (Miller et al, 2000). The medicinal value of these plants lies in their component phytochemicals, which produce definite physiological actions on the human body (Akinmoladun et al, 2007). The most important of these phytochemicals are alkaloid, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. It is believed that phytochemicals may be effective in combating or preventing diseases due to their antioxidant potential (Farombi et al, 1998).

          Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries (Craig, 2000). The use of plant derived compounds as part of herbal preparations as well as alternative sources of medicament continues to play profound roles in the general provision of good health to people all over the world (Farombi et al., 1998). Interest in medicinal plants as a remerging health aid has been fuelled by the rising costs of prescription drugs in the maintenance of personal health and well-being, and in the bio-prospecting new plants derived drugs (Farombi, 2003).

In modern times, plants have both served as a source of allopathic drugs or herbal extracts for various chemotherapeutic purposes in developed and developing countries alike (Farombi, 2003). In the world, over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural products origin (Craig, 2000) and natural product play an important role in drug development programed of the pharmaceutical industries (Farombi, 2003). During the past decade, the use of herbs and related products have increased from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 1995 (Izevbigie, 2003), Farombi (2003) indicated that of the 40 to 60% who use non-conventional treatment and management methods in controlling diabetes 23% of them use plants materials. In majority of these plants there exist an  inestimable treasure of bioactive phytochemicals including the alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids,redcing compound,  terpenoids, steroids, polyphenol and anthraquinones to mention just a few (Craig, 2000).

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 

          This is a resurgence of interest in plants with potential medicinal properties due to their significant roles in management of various human ailments. The therapeutic efficacy of plants has been attributed to the biologically active chemical naturally resident in such plant parts as leaves, stem or roots, some of which are also known to be potentially toxic, if digested in high amount.

Herbal plants have been recognized to possess profound medicinal properties following their utilization as spices for edible purpose, purgative, anti-inflammatory or anti-microbial agent in traditional medicine. Physiotherapy is becoming an alternative remedy for delivery of primary health care services due to their wide spread availability and low cost. This discovery of the therapeutic efficacy of most plants with less toxic side effects compared to modern drugs is gradually creating room for global utilization of these plants as better alternatives to chemically synthesized drugs. With the discovery of a rising number of both medical and potentially medicinal plants, with wide acceptability and applicability, It is against this background that this research is embarked upon in other to establish comparatively, the active components of these selected plants with therapeutic properties, with a view of providing empirical bases for the choice of either of these plants for edible purpose or as therapeutic remedies in management of diseases as well as delivery of primary health care services.

 

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

General Objectives:

The study attempts to evaluate nutritive analysis the potential active components of Piper guineense whose biological roles could be employed therapeutically in the management of various health complications.

The specific objectives of the study are to:

(i) Determine the phytochemical constituents and carry out partial characterisations of the extracts of the plant Piper guineense

(ii) Qualitative determination of phytochemical composition of the leaf of the plant Piper guineense

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The results of this study will serve as a scientific evidence as to which of these plants could best be employed in the management of particular ailments considering their respective bioactive phytochemicals profile. It will also provide biochemical evidence for the observed therapeutic effects of these plants when used singularly or in combination for medicinal purposes. Therefore, Knowledge of the from analysis the nutritive vales of this plant will go a long way in promoting the use in the management of nutrition deficiency associated disease and oxidative stress related conditions.

1.5      SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1. Ethanolic extraction of the active component of the leaf of the plant 

for phytochemical screening.

2. Phytochemical Screening:

i. Test for Alkaloids

ii. Test for Glycosides

iii. Test for Saponins

iv. Test for Tannins

v. Test for Flavonoids

vi. Test for steroids

vii. Test for polyphenols

viii. Test for resins

ix. Test for phenols

x. Test for terpenoids

 

1.6    DEFINITION OF TERMS

Antioxidant is a chemical agent that is capable of slowing or preventing the oxidative reaction of other molecules.

Efficacy: The ability of something especially a drug or a medicinal treatment, to produce the results that are wanted.

Pharmaceutical: In this work, the term used to describe any of the products obtained through chemical synthesis, thus composed of few substances with perfectly known amounts, Also all those preparations made in a pharmacy.

Phytotherapy: The treatment of diseases by means of medicinal herbs. Herbs phytotherapeutical medicines are made of parts, extracts, mixtures of one or several plants, thus being extremely complex from a chemical standpoint.

Hypoglycemic plants are used to treat diabetes and aloe under medical control, a reduction of the dose of orally taken anti-diabetic products or of insulin.

Saponin: Glycoside substance in a plant that makes foamy, soap-like bubbles in water. Useful as natural soaps or added to standard soaps. A high saponin content herb frequently has hexative properties when taken internally.

Tannins: Compounds that reacts with protein to produce a leather-like coating on animal tissues. They promote healing and numbing, reduce formation and half infection.

Hypoglycemic: Any of a class of substance or product which decreases sugar concentration in the blood

Decoction is a method of extraction by boiling herbal or plant material to dissolve the chemical of the material, which may include stems, roots, bark and rhizomes.

Endangered is a substance to put somebody in a situation in which they could be harmed or damaged.

Purgative: Any of a class substance which prove a diarrheic evaluation, purgative have a very intense laxative action, generally accompanied by intestine irritation.

Infusion: The act of adding something to something else in order to make it stronger or more successful.

Extract: Withdrawing the desired constituents from a plant through physical and or chemical means.

Oxidative Stress: Is a state where in the balance between radicals generated and the free radical or oxidant-scavenging capacity of the endogenous antioxidant system is disrupted

 

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