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PROJECT ID : 24752
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 32
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

PRODUCTION OF BLACK SOAP USING PLANTAIN PEELS (MUSA PARAISIACA)
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

This research work was aimed at production of African black soap using plantain peels as local alkali. The result of the analysis shows that African black soap could be produce using organic waste, such as plantain peels as an active ingredient. The result of quality parameters of the soap shows total free alkaline contents to be 13.00%, pH, value was 9.00%, chloride content was 25.80%, total fatty matter was 28.00% and the foaming stable was very stable and total moisture content to be 1.9%. The result of this study when compared to the acceptable Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) reflected and acceptable values. It is therefore recommended that soap should be produced in a large quantity using local alkaline (caustic potash) such as plantain peels.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Certification         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Acknowledgements        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv-v

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii-ix

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1-3

1.2     Aim and Objective of the Study        -        -        -        -        3       

1.3     Scope and Limitation of the Study   -        -        -        -        3

1.4     Definition of Term         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4-5

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6-8

2.1     Black Soap           -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8-9

2.2     History of an African Black Soap     -        -        -        -        10-11

2.3     Types of Black Soap     -        -        -        -        -        -        11

2.3.1 Bar Black Soap    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        11

2.3.2 Liquid Black Soap         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        11

2.4     What Makes Black Soap Different and Unique   -        -        12

2.5     Mechanism of Soap Cleansing          -        -        -        -        -        12-13

2.6     Soap-Making Processes -        -        -        -        -        -        13-15

2.6.1  Cold Process of Soap Making           -        -        -        -        -        15-16

2.6.2  Hot Processes       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16-17

2.6.3  Moulds       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -17-18

2.7     Benefits of Using African Black Soap        -        -        -        -        18-19

2.8     Chemical Composition of Plantain Peel     -        -        -        19-22

2.8.1  Safety precaution in African black soap production     -        22-23

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Material and Methods    -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.1     Materials    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.2     Methods-    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.2.1  Sample collection and preparation   -        -        -        -        25-27

3.3     Analysis of soap parameters   -        -        -        -        -        28

3.3.1  Determination of Foaming Stability of Soap       -        -        -        28

3.3.2  Determination of Total Free Alkaline (TFA) of Soap    -        28-29

3.3.3  Determination of Chloride Contents of Soap       -        -        -        29

3.3.4  Determination of Total Fatty Mater (TFM) of Soap      -        30

3.3.5  Determination of pH of Soap -        -        -        -        -        31

3.5.6 Determination of Total Moisture Content of the Soap (TMC) 31-32

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results and Discussion -        -        -        -        -        -        33

4.1     Results        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

4.2     Discussion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        34

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations     -        -        35     

5.1     Summary   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

5.2     Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35-36

5.3     Recommendation           -        -        -        -        -        -        -        36

          References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

African black soap comes from plantain skins originally. Plantain is a rich source of vitamins A, E and Iron. Plantain is a popular food in Africa and other parts of the world. It looks much like a banana but it’s bigger and longer than banana. The peels of the plantain are dried to a specific texture in order to achieve a particular colour, texture and smell. The dry or roasting of the plantains peels determines the colour of the soap. African black soap halts from West African and is much sought after on account of its efficacious effect on the skin. It is known by many names including Ose Dudu as it is being called by the Yoruba people of Western Nigeria term which literally means black soap, while the Ibibio’s called “Enwewene otong”. It has been used throughout African and in the diaspora   (Onyegbado et al., 2004).

There are more than 100 different varieties of real African black soap and black soap is known in West African by several names but the most common is Dudu osun or Ose Dudu, which is derived from the Yoruba language of Nigeria. Although referred to as “Black “African black soap. It colour varies from a light brown to a deep black depending on the ingredient and method of preparation (Alfred, 2003). The oil used to make African black soap vary by region and include palm oil, palm kernels oil, coconut cocoa oil, butter and Shea butter. Any combination of these ingredients is possible and determined based on availability. Coaster regions tend to use more coconut oil, savanna region use more Shea butter. In addition the potash that is used to make African black soap can be derived from the ashes of several plants leaf and the byproducts of Shea butter production. Most importantly authentic African black soap is made with handmade potash in small batches and is not manufactured in factories with commercial potash and refined oils (AOAC, 1990).

The production and the recipe for the soap varies depending on the region of African where it is made. Most black soaps are made with a blend of plantain skin, cocoa pod powder, tropical honey and virgin coconut oil. It is mostly hand crafted by village women in African who make the soap for themselves to support their families (Anselem, 2000). In addition, the potash (natural exfoliating additives) use to make African black soap can be derived from the ashes of several plant sources, including cocoa pods, Shea tree bark, plantain leaves, and the by-products of Shea butter production. There are no chemical added as preservative, colour enhancers and this is the unique feature of black soap (Micheal, 1984; King, 1983).

Liquid African black soap is good for new born babies because of their sensitive skin. It is recommended for individual with sensitive skin. The colour of these authentic traditions made African black soap is very mild and pleasant with no fragrances added. The potash used comes from ashes of plantain leaves (Godwin and Spensley, 1971).

1.2     AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The aim of the study is to produce or derived black soap using plantain peel ash as active ingredients

1.3     SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study is centered on the production of black soap using plantain peels (organic matter) as a raw material. This work is limited only to plantain peels due to time frame within the period of the analysis. Others factor including financial constraints also stood as a limiting factors as the entire financial burden are directly on the researching student.

 

 

1.4     DEFINITION OF TERM

Soap: soap is a water soluble compound made by reaction (called saponification) between caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and caustic potash (potassium hydroxide) with vegetable oil. It is also to determine the analysis of the physical parameter of black soap. 

Commonly soap can be defined as a substance used with water for washing and cleansing made of a compound of natural oil or fat with sodium hydroxide or another strong alkaline and typically having      perfumes and colour added.

Black soap: Black soap is soap made from the ash of locally harvested plant and bark such as plantain, cocoa pod, palm tree leaves, and shea butter bark, and it also a soft soap with an organic shape.

Saponification: Saponification is a process by which triglyceride react with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to produce glycerol and  fatty acid salt called soap.

Triglyceride: This is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids

Organic Materials: Organic materials are materials derived from the decomposition of plantain peels, tree leaves, tree bark and animals faeces.

Plantain: Plantains is a popular food in Africa and other parts of the world. It is rich sources of vitamin A, E and iron for intake of human   consumption.

Unripe Plantain peels: Unripe plantain peels is generated as a result of mechanical removal of the outer covering of plantain peels. It is currently used as fertilizer and also in black soap production as caustic potash.

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
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