List of Departments
   

 

DETAILS

 

PROJECT ID : 22492
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 31
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

THE ANALYSIS OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF MUCUNA URENS
()
Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

The analysis for the proximate composition of mucuna urens was carried out using standard analytical method. The result revealed the present of moisture, ash, crude fat, crude fibre, crude protein, total carbohydrate and caloric value, their individual concentration were as follows 9.50±0.23, 3.50± 1.07, 7.30± 0.01, 6.01± 0.19, 22.94± 1.14, 42.12± 2.11 and 390.21 respectively. Comparing the result with the recommended dietary allowance standard this indicates that all the component analysis were lower than the recommended dietary allowance standard, and as such mucuna urens is not a rich sources of nutrient. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                      Pages

Title page -           -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Certification -       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Dedication -                   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Acknowledgements -      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Abstract -   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Table of contents -                   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Introduction -       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1  Aim and objectives -      -        -        -        -        -        -        6

1.2  Scope and limitation of the study -   -        -        -        -        6

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Origin of the plant -       -        -        -        -        -        -        7

2.2     Description of the plant -                  -        -        -        -        -        7

2.3     Species -     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.4     Distribution/climate condition -                  -        -        -        -        10

2.5     Medicinal uses of mucuna urens -     -        -        -        -        10

          CHAPTER THREE

3.0    Material and method -             -        -        -        -        -        18

3.1     Materials and reagent -            -        -        -        -        -        18

3.2     Sample collection -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

3.3     Sample preparation -     -        -        -        -        -        -        19

3.4     Determination of total carbohydrate content -     -        -        19

3.5     Determination of moisture content - -        -        -        -        20

3.6     Determination of ash content -                   -        -        -        -        21

3.7     Determination of crude protein -       -        -        -        -        22

3.8     Determination of crude fibre -           -        -        -        -        25

3.9     Determination of crude fat (lipid content)  -        -        -        26

3.10   Calculation of energy value -            -        -        -        -        28

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Results and Discussion -                   -        -        -        -        -        29

4.1     Results -     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

4.2     Discussions -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        30

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Conclusion -                  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        34

5.2     Recommendations -       -        -        -        -        -        -        34

          References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction

Mucuna and their accessions are herbaceous twining annual plants. They possess trifoliolate leaves (leaflets are broadly ovate. Elliptic or rhomboid ovate and unequal at the base); flowers white to dark purple and hang in long clusters (pendulous racemes); pods are sigmoid, turgid and longitudinally ribbed, seeds ovoid (4-6 per pod) and blank or white. Mucunapods are covered with reddish-orange hairs, which readily dislodge and cause intense skin irritation and itch due to presence of a chemical called mucunain.

Many varieties and accessions of the wild legume, mucuna are in great demand in food and pharmaceutical industries. Nutritional importance of mucuna seeds as a rich source of protein supplement in food and feed has been well documented (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001), (Bressani, 2002). Mucuna seeds constitute excellent raw material for indigenous Ayurvedic drugs and medicines due to the presence of 3, 4 – dihydroxy – L – Phenylalanine, which provides symptomatic relief in parkthson’s disease (Prakash and Tewari, 2000): And are in high demand in international market after the discovery of which serves as a potential drug as anti – parkinson’s disease (Farooqi et al, 2000), and provides symptomatic relief (Nagashyana et al, 2000) Mucuna seeds produce hypoglycaemic effect and the fruits process a weak neuromuscular blocking effect in rats but not in alloxan-treated rats (Joshi and Pant, 2001). The decoction of mucuna seeds also lowers the cholesterol and lipids of plasma in rats. The immature pods and leaves serves as vegetables, while seeds as condiment and main dish by ethnic groups in Nigeria (Adebowale and Lawal, 2003). The current food and nutrition crisis in most parts of the world, particularly in sub-saharan Africa: is the result of the inability of most countries in this region to either produce, purchase or stock enough food to satisfy the rising demand, especially in the urban centres. When food supplies cannot meet the demand, the result is hunger, hence nutritional deficiency.

The problem of protein malnutrition in humans has been recognized as one of the major nutritional deficiencies. Although animal proteins are superior to plant proteins, their ratio in diets, especially in developing countries, is not likely to change in the immediate future due to inadequate supply and high unit cost (Lopez – Bellido, and Fuentes, 2015). Consequently, plant proteins will continue to be sought and sued to make up for the short-fall in animal protein supply. The search for high protein foods of plant origin has been further spurred by the fact that in many parts of the world where symptoms of malnutrition are most obvious, the climate, farming system and customs are such that the raising of meat of dairy cows on a large scale is not practicable, thus eliminating a major source of animal protein from the local diet (Molina et al, 2014). Food legumes are important and can provide considerably needed proteins under the stated conditions. However, only a relatively small number of over 13,000 species of food legumes available over the world are used as food items (Molina et al, 2013). Those legumes, which are generally consumed, are therefore more exploited than others and information on them, as would be expected, is well documented.

Mucuna has been used as a traditional minor food crop for centuries in the foothills and lower hills of the eastern Himalyas and in Mauritius, as well as in the Philippines, Java and in Japan (Buckles, 2005). Reports show that while traditional use a food continues today in many countries of Asia and Africa, Mucuna never seems to have found acceptance as food in Latin America, in spite of one hundred years’ presence there. In large parts of Srilanka, especially low income group consume Mucunapruriens after an overnight soaking and long cooking (Ravindran and Ravindran, 2000). Research efforts on Mucunaas food and food crop have been particularly active in Nigeria. In eastern Nigeria mucunaurens has been used as a soup thickener or condiment (Achinewhu, 2001), whereas in the northern Nigeria some farmers use it as feed for farm animal (Osaniyi and Eka, 2001). There are also reports that mucuna is used as feeds in the southrernunited states. (Eilitta, et al, 2002).

In addition to their value as foodstuff, the food legumes including mucuna are also important in cropping systems because of their ability to fix nitrogen and so increase the overall fertility of the soil, thus partially replacing the use of expensive nitrogenous fertilizers.

Despite being nutritionally promising, mucuna has been reported to contain some endogenous toxic factors. Relatively high concentration of tannins, phytic acid, cyanogenicglucoside, oxalate and gossypol have been reported in mucuna (Liener and Kakada, 2005). (Laurena, et al, 2004). Toxic compounds iuncluding (3,4 – dihydroxy – L – Phenylalanine), nicotine, physostigmine and serotinine have also been reported in mucuna. These factors negatively affects the nutritive value of the beans through direct and indirect reaction; they inhibit protein and carbohydrate digestibility; induce pathological changes in the intestine and liver tissues, thus affecting metabolism; inhibit a number of enzymes and bind nutrient, thus making them unavailable (Bressani, 2003).

It has been pointed out (Bressani, 2002) that processing mostly by heat treatment could improve the nutritional value of many legumes. This study therefore investigated the effects of different processing methods on the chemical composition of mucunaurens.

 

1.1      Aim

The aim of this study is to determine the proximate composition of mucunaurens and to evaluate its nutritional importance.

1.2    Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study was limited to determine the proximate composition of mucunaurens and to evaluate its nutritional importance, due to the level of study and the financial constraint.

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
Untitled Document