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PROJECT ID : 22168
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PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTI OXIDANT CAPACITY OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF JUSTICIA SCHIMPERI (MMEME)
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

Herbal medicine and other plant derived therapeutics or prophylactic products in various forms have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases. In the course of this research related literatures were reviewed which clearly elaborated  medicinal uses of Justicia schimperi it was meant to know that Plants provide a variety of resources that contribute to the fundamental needs of food, clothing and shelter. Among plants of economic importance are medicinal plants. Adoption of a proper methodology of research to determine the medical composition of Justicia schimperi. The phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanol leaf extract of Justicia schimperi was carried out to determine the presence of the alkaloid, glycosides, saponin, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, polyphenol, resins, phenols and terpenoids.  The mixture was concentrated to dryness in a water bath to obtain 5g (6% w/w) for water and 4g (5% w/w) for methanol extract. However, recommendations were made base on the result of the finding to for instance  Justicia Schimperi does not act by destroying micro - organisms, but rather by giving strength to the body defenses when eating or taken orally.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------i

Approval page-------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii

Dedication----------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii

Acknowledgement--------------------------------------------------------------------------iv

Abstract---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------v

Table of contents----------------------------------------------------------------------------vi

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0.    Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

1.1.    Background of the Study-----------------------------------------------------------------2

1.2.    Significance of the study-----------------------------------------------------------------6

1.3.    Scope/Limitations of the Study----------------------------------------------------------7

1.4.    Objectives of the study-------------------------------------------------------------------7

1.5.    Definition of Terms----------------------------------------------------------------------8

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.0.    This chapter will be reviewed under the following heading-----------------------11

2.1.    Plant (Mmeme leaf) Justicia schimperi--------------------------------------------------

2.2.    Plants Sources and Medical Products------------------------------------------------11

2.3.    Scientific Classification of Mmeme leaf----------------------------------------------13

2.4 . Economic Importance of Justicia Schimperi  (Mmeme leaf)------------------------14

2.5. Chemical Composition of  Justicia schimperi (Mmeme leaf)------------------------15

2.6. Medicinal uses of Justicia schimperi (Mmeme leaf)----------------------------------16

2.7. Previous Chemical and Pharmacological Investigation-----------------------------16

2.8. History of medicinal plants-----------------------------------------------------------17

2.9. Uses of medicinal plants--------------------------------------------------------------19

2.10    Traditional system of herbal medicine----------------------------------------------21

2.11 . Asian Traditional Medicine--------------------------------------------------------22

2.12 . European Traditional Medicine-------------------------------------------------------23

2.13  African Traditional Medicine--------------------------------------------------------23

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0.    Materials and Methodology of Research--------------------------------------------25

3.1.    Materials-------------------------------------------------------------------------------25

3.1.1. Plant Material--------------------------------------------------------------------------25

3.1.2. Instruments/Equipment-------------------------------------------------------------25

3.1.3. Chemicals---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

3.1.4. Reagents for Analysis---------------------------------------------------------------26

3.2.    Methodology-------------------------------------------------------------------------28

3.2.1. Laboratory method-----------------------------------------------------------------28

3.2.2. Sample Materials Collection-------------------------------------------------------29

3.2.3. Sample Preparation------------------------------------------------------------------29

3.2.4. Experimental Procedure-------------------------------------------------------------30

3.2.5. Experimental Analysis--------------------------------------------------------------30

3.3.    Preliminary Qualitative Phytochemicals Analysis---------------------------------30

3.3.1. Test for Alkaloids---------------------------------------------------------------------31

3.3.2. Test for Glycosides-------------------------------------------------------------------31

3.3.3. Test for Saponin-----------------------------------------------------------------------32

3.3.4. Test for Tannin------------------------------------------------------------------------32

3.3.5. Test for Flavonoids-------------------------------------------------------------------32

3.3.6. Test for Steroids---------------------------------------------------------------------33

3.3.7. Test for Polyphenol-----------------------------------------------------------------33

3.3.8. Test for Resins-----------------------------------------------------------------------33

3.3.9. Test for Phenol----------------------------------------------------------------------34

3.3.10. Test for Terpenoids----------------------------------------------------------------34

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

4.0.    Presentation, Analysis and Decision--------------------------------------------------35

4.1.    Presentation of Results---------------------------------------------------------------35

4.2.    Analysis of Results-------------------------------------------------------------------36

4.3.    Discussion of Results-------------------------------------------------------------37

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0.    Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation-------------------------------------40

5.1.    Summary------------------------------------------------------------------------------40

5.2.    Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------------------41

5.3.    Recommendations------------------------------------------------------------------42

     References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The leaves of Justicia schimperi (mmeme) have been generating a lot of interest among the Ibibio and Annang people in the southern Nigeria. They provide useful source of human nutrition and medicinal value. In some African countries, traditional medicines are integral parts of the formal health system. On an equal status with modern medicine, but in others, this is not the case. African traditional medicine, although important for individuals and communities, remain a form of private practice outside the formal health system. One that cannot be easily organized by the government. Current estimates suggest that in many African countries, a large proportion of the population rely heavily on traditional practitioners and traditional medicines to meet their primary health care needs (Farombi, 2008). Although modern medicine may be available in those countries, traditional medicine has often maintained its popularity for historical, indistinct approaches and for cultural reasons. Some African countries have developed national policies on traditional medicine, which include a legal framework and a code of ethics and conduct for the practice of traditional medicine. Some have put in place mechanisms for the regulation of traditional medicines practice: legislation, regulatory frameworks and institutional instruments for developing African traditional medicine and for locally producing commercial quantities of standardized African traditional medicines. Other countries have further moved towards integrating and institutionalizing traditional medicine into the public health care system (Banso and Adeyemo, 2008).

Herbal medicine and other plant derived therapeutics or prophylactic products in various forms have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases. More than 25% of marketed orthodox pharmaceuticals are either derived from plant sources or from derivatives of secondary plant metabolites. It is popularly believed that medicinal plants are safer than pharmaceuticals because they are of natural origin.

However, recent scientific reports have demonstrated that several medicinal plants used in phyto-medicine are potentially toxic and some are even mutagenic and or carcinogenic (Adepoju and Oyewole, 2008). The toxicity for herbal drugs therefore depends on their purity, herbal combinations, absorption, bioavailability and reported adverse effects. In modern times, plants have both served as a source of allopathic drugs on herbal extracts for various chemotherapeutics purposes in developed and developing countries alike (Farombi, 2003).

In the world, over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural products origin and natural product play an important role in drug development programed of the pharmaceutical industries (Craig, 2000). During the past decade, the use of herbs and related products have increased from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 1995, indicated that of the 40 to 60% who use non-conventional treatment and management methods in controlling diabetes 23% of them use plants materials.

The production of free radicals has been associated with various physiological and pathological events such as inflammation, aging, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Antioxidants are vital substances with the ability to protect the body from the damage causes free radical induced oxidative stress. Natural antioxidants present in medicinal and dietary plants have been implicated in the prevention of oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are released from normal oxidative metabolism in eukaryotic cells and cellular antioxidant, such as superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin which carry out the detoxification process in these species. However, an over production of ROS or a decrease in the anti-oxidative capacity of cells can cause oxidative stress.

          Almost all cancer cells are under an oxidative stress associated with increased production of ROS. The increased basal oxidative stress in transformed cells makes them highly dependent on their antioxidant systems to counteract the damaging effect of ROS; this makes them susceptible to further oxidative stress. ROS-generating agents can effectively kill cancer cells by increasing the intracellular ROS to a toxic level. Human cancer cells with an intrinsic oxidative stress are highly sensitive to ROS stress. Promoting ROS generation in mitochondria can effectively kill them.

African traditional medicine, although important for individuals and communities remains a form of private practice outside the formal health system, one that cannot be easily organized by the government. Current estimates suggest that in many African countries, a large proportion of the population rely heavily on traditional practitioners and traditional medicines to meet their primary health care needs. Although modern medicine may be available in these countries, traditional medicines have often maintained its popularity for historical, holistic approaches and for cultural reasons. Some African countries have developed national policies on traditional medicine, which include a legal framework, and a code of ethics and conduct for the practice of traditional medicine. Some have put in place mechanisms for the regulation of traditional medicines practice: legislation, regulatory frameworks. Physiotherapy is becoming an alternative remedy for delivery of primary health care services due to their wide spread availability and low cost. This discovery of the therapeutic efficacy of most plants with less toxic side effects compared to modern drugs is gradually creating room for global utilization of these plants as better alternatives to chemically synthesized drugs. The therapeutic efficacy of plants has been attributed to the biologically active chemical naturally resident in such plant parts as leaves, stem or roots, some of which are also known to be potentially toxic, if digested in high amount.

With the discovery of a rising number of both medical and potentially medicinal plants with wide acceptability and applicability, there is need to compare both quantitatively and qualitatively or simple analytically determine the components of a few of this plants in other to ascertain which among this can possibly offer the most therapeutic effects with minimal associated toxicity. It is against this background that this study is embarked upon in order to establish the analysis of medicinal and nutritive values of Justicia schimperi for efficient herbal supplement, the active components of this plant with therapeutic properties with a view of providing empirical bases for the choice of this plant for edible purpose or as therapeutic remedies in management of diseases as well as delivery of primary health care services.

Medicinal plants are groups of plants with vital roles in alleviating human suffering; plants have been utilized as therapeutic agents since time immemorial in both organized and unorganized forms. The healing properties of many herbal medicines have been recognized in many ancient cultures. Plants must have first been explored as sources of food. As a result of food ingestion, a link with some plant properties must have been established. Medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of various diseases for thousands of years.

 

1.2.    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The results of this study will provide scientific evidence on the level of medicinal potency of Justicia schimperi in management in some ailments considering their respective bioactive phytochemical profile. It will also provide biochemical evidence for the observed therapeutic effects of this plant when used singularly or in combination for medicinal purposes. Knowledge of analyzing the nutritive values of this plant will go a long way in promoting the use in the management of nutrition deficiency associated disease and oxidative stress related conditions. This study will also serve as a useful resource material for further research in the relevant area.

 

1.3.    SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study is undertaking to investigate the phytochemical and qualitative content in Justicia schimperi (mmeme leaves).

However, the study would be only subjected to qualitative determination of some phytochemical component of Justicia schimperi. As a result of this, time frame stood as a setback to this study, as this study is bound for short time frame.

1.4.   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

General Objective: The study is to determine the medicinal and nutritional potentials of the vegetables commonly eaten and thus understand the reason for their inclusion in our local dishes and sensitize the people on the need for their consumption of Justicia schimperi for efficient herbal supplements.

Specific objective of the study are as follows:

i. To analyze the potential active components of Justicia schimperi whose biological roles could be employed therapeutically in the management of various health complications.

ii. Determine the phytochemical constituents and carry out extracts of the plant Justicia schimperi.

iii. Qualitative determination of phytochemical composition of the leaf of the plant Justicia schimperi.

 

1.5.    DEFINITION OF TERMS

Phytochemical: Are natural occurring non-nutritive bioactive compounds found in plants which are beneficial to humans.

Medicinal Plant: Are source of raw materials for both traditional systems of medicine and modern medicine.

Phytotherapy: Prevention and treatment of human diseases using plants, parts of plants on preparations of plants.

Extract: Withdrawing the desired constituents from a plant through physical and or chemical means.

Antioxidant: Are substances which retard or prevent deterioration, damage or destruction caused by oxidation.

Oxidative Stress: Is a state where in the balances between radicals generated and the free radicals on Oxidant-Scavenging capacity of the endogenous antioxidant system is disrupted.

Saponin: Are a group of secondary metabolites which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom.

Alkaloid: Compound which contains nitrogen and other had many medicinal applications.

Flavonoids: Group of plant substances that affect the body in a variety of different ways, usually in a tonic fashion to help restore health to blood vessels, cell membranes and other critical plants of the body.

Tannins: Compounds that reacts with protein to produce a leather-like coating on animal's tissues. They promote healing and numbing reduce formation and half infecting.

Phenol: A basic building block of many plant constituents, many different phenolic compounds exist that are based on it.

Antibiotic: Compound that destroys or stops the growth of micro-organisms in the body.

Leaves: A vegetable Organ which when complete, consists of a flat blade, a petiole on stalk, and (usually two) small leafy appendages at the base of the petiole.

 

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