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PROJECT ID : 16032
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 38
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT IN PINEAPLE, ORANGE, PAW-PAW, LIME AND LEMON FRUIT
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

The vitamin C contents of same of natural fruits namely orange, lemon, lime, pineapple and pawpaw were investigated. The juices from the fruit samples were extracted and analysed for their vitamin C contents by titration method using. Using 2, 6-Dichlorophenoindophenol (DCPIP) indicator. Results revealed that the vitamin C content depends on the different type of fruits tested. The citrus fruits were found to have the highest vitamin C follow by other fruits in my research.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page -------------------------------------------------------------------------- i

Declaration ------------------------------------------------------------------------ii

Approval Page -------------------------------------------------------------------iii

Dedication ------------------------------------------------------------------------iv

Acknowledgment -----------------------------------------------------------------v

Abstract ---------------------------------------------------------------------------vi

Table of Contents ---------------------------------------------------------------vii

Lists of Table--------------------------------------------------------------------viii

 

CHAPTER ONE:

1.1     Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------1

1.2    Background of the Study ----------------------------------------------- 1

1.2     Significance of the study ------------------------------------------------4

1.3     Objectives of the Study --------------------------------------------------4

1.4     Scope/Limitation of the Study ------------------------------------------5

1.5     Definition of terms ---------------------------------------------------------6

 

CHAPTER TWO:

2.1   Review of Related Literature --------------------------------------------8

2.2    Introduction  -----------------------------------------------------------------8

2.3   Concept of Ascorbic acid---------------------------------------------------9

2.4   Review of ascorbic acid content in of some fruits ----------------11

2.4   Therapeutic uses of Vitamin C---------------------------------------------15

2.5   Medical Values-----------------------------------------------------------------18

2.6   Nutritional Values------------------------------------------------------------21

2.7     Deficiency of Ascorbic Acid----------------------------------------------22

CHAPTER THREE:

3.0     Methodology of Research  ------------------------------------------------24

3.1     Introduction -----------------------------------------------------------------24

3.2     Laboratory  specific method--------------------------------------------24

3.3     Sample Collection -------------------------------------------------------25

3.4     Sample/ Material Preparation------------------------------------------25

3.5     Experiments/ Procedure------------------------------------------------26

3.6     Experimental Analysis--------------------------------------------------26

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.0     RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION  -----------------------29

4.1     Introduction-----------------------------------------------------------------29

4.2     Presentation of results------------------------------------------------------29

4.3     Analysis of result-----------------------------------------------------------35

4.4     Summary of Results--------------------------------------------------------35

4.4     Discussion of results--------------------------------------------------------36

 

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.0        SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS-38

5.1            Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------38

5.2            Summary------------------------------------------------------------38

5.3              Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------40

5.4              Recommendations-------------------------------------------------41

          References -----------------------------------------------------------------42

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1: Ascorbic acid content in selected foods

          Table 2: Reactive species scavenged by ascorbic acid

Table 3. Vitamin C content of the five selected fruits.

Table4. Orange

Table 5 Lemon

Table 6 Lime

Table 7 Pineapple

Table 8 Pawpaw

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1.     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Ascorbic acid was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928 and first manufactured in 1933, making it the first vitamin to be manufactured. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Ascorbic acid is available as a generic medication and over the counter.

Ascorbic acid (commonly known as Vitamin C), is arguably one of the most important water-soluble biological antioxidants. The compound was first structurally identified by physicians Szent-Gyorgy, L. Waugh and king in 1932 (Seib et al, 1982), but synthesized by Haworth and Hirst in 1933. (Kyle et al, 2002). Its health benefit was published in (1995) by Linus Pauling for its preventive action on common cold and has since been confirmed to be one of the popular supplements in the world.

However, in recent times Researches have shown that fruits and vegetables are the best sources of Ascorbic acid. Especially fruits and vegetables that are rich in Ascorbic acid are citrus fruits (such as; oranges, lime and lemon fruits etc). Others are Pineapple,  Apple, tropical Guava, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, raw bell peppers, and strawberries etc.  ascorbic acid contain chemicals known as antioxidants therefore prolonged storage or cooking reduces the ascorbic content in foods.

Apart from its importance in the defense against common cold, Ascorbic acid also acts as an inhibitor of histamine, a compound released during allergic reactions. As a strong antioxidant, it neutralizes harmful free radicals and aids, pollutant and toxins. Hence, it is capable of preventing the formation of potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach (due to the consumption of nitrite containing foods such as smoked meat (Meoster, 2001)

Since Ascorbic acid is commonly found in food, therefore it is often recommended as dietary supplement in our every day meals. Consequently, the disease scurvy can be prevented or treated with Ascorbic acid containing foods or dietary supplements. Though there is no evidence to support its use in general population for the prevention of the common colds, but there is however, some confirmed cases that regular use have shorten the length of colds.

Ascorbic acid should be taken within the recommended dose as large doses may cause gastrointestinal discomfort, headache, trouble sleeping, and flushing of the skin.

Researches also confirmed Ascorbic acid as an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue, in activating  neurotransmitters, boast the functionality of  enzymes and  immune system.

This compound is required for the synthesis of collage, the intercellular “cement” substance which gives structure to muscles, vascular tissues, bones, tendons and ligaments. Due to these functions, vitamin C, especially in combination with zinc is important for the healing of wounds, contributes for the health of teeth and gums, prevent hemorrhage and bleeding. Improves the absorption of iron from the diet, required for the metabolism of bile acids which may have implications for blood cholesterol and gallstones (Wallock, 2006).

Ascorbic acid is also a crucial factor in the ability to deal with oxidative stress, and can delay the progression of advanced age-related muscular degeneration (AMD) and vision loss in combination with other antioxidant vitamins and zinc (Hollingsworth, 2000).

Ascorbic acid is useful in the treatment of HIV patients as it has been shown to boost the immune system and prevent nerve damage.

  1.     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

                 The study shall be of major significance in the following ways:

  1.  It will sensitize the public on functions of ascorbic acid especially the inhibition of histamine for allergic reactions medical, pharmaceutical and international values.
  2. The result of the findings from the research shall be of great benefit to the manufacturer of food, drugs and related products.
  3. It would also serve as one of the literature or a research template for further researches.
  4. The outcome of this research work will be of interest to the nation, state and to each local government to showcase the need for adequate intake of ascorbic acid which is useful in the treatment of some disease conditions such as high blood pressure, cancer, cataracts, diabetes, asthma, HIV/AIDS, common cold and the prevention of scurvy.

 

  1.     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The study intends to address the following objectives:

  1. To examine and evaluate the amount of ascorbic acid in some natural fruit sources.
  2. To compare the ascorbic acid content of these fruits with the recommended daily allowance (RDA) as a standard for healthy consumption.
  3. To evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid specifically as a strong anti-oxidant, and possible negative impacts of excessive consumption to the body
  4. To recommend possible quality of these fruits required to obtain the recommended daily allowance (RDA).

 

1.4     SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study revolves around ascorbic acid content in Pineapple, Apple and Orange fruits, and other fruits which also contain ascorbic acid.

The limitations of the study include: insufficient time to carry out the study to the fullest as it was combined with other academic activities in school. Also, no suitable laboratory available for the analysis thereby limiting the study to get all the test sought for.

1.5     DEFINITION OF TERMS

ANTIOXIDANT: A substance capable of neutralizing oxygen free radicals, the highly active and damaging atoms and chemical groups produced by various disease processes and by poisons, radiation, smoking and other agencies.

THERAPEUTICS: The branch of medicine that deals with different methods of treatment and healing (therapy), particularly the use of drugs in the cure of disease.

           VARIETY: Different types of a particular fruit.

SCURVY: A disease that is caused by a deficiency of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

          PHYTONUTRIENTS: Nutrients obtained from plants.

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY: Drugs or substances that reduces inflammation.

           PHOTOCHEMICAL: chemicals obtained from plants

CAROTENOIDS: Groups of about 100 naturally occurring yellow to red pigments found mostly in plants

CARIOGENIC: Causing caries, particularly dental caries (decay and crumbling of the substance of a tooth). Refers to the sugar in food and drinks

FREE RADICALS: the highly active and damaging atoms and chemical groups produced by various disease processes and by poisons, radiation, smoking, and other agencies.

ALLERGIC:  A condition that makes a person become ill or develop skin or breathing problems because they have eaten certain foods or come in contact with certain substances.

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
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