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PROJECT ID : 15606
TYPE : Project
PAGES : 59
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)



Science Lab. Technology


A qualitative analysis of recreational water (swimming pool) in Akwa Ibom State was carried out using standard microbiological procedure. The results from the analysis revealed a mean heterotrophic bacterial count ranging from 1.1x104cfu/ml to 5.0x104cfu/ml. There was no feacal coliform isolate. Fungal count ranged from 1.0x104cfu/ml to 2.0x104cfu/ml. The analysis revealed the presence of Staphylococcussp, Streptococcussp, Pseudomonassp, Bacillussp and Mycobacteriumsp as bacterial isolate while fungal isolate include RhizopusspPenicilliumsp, Cladosporiumsp and Trichophyton sp. The highest bacterial and percentage frequency occurrence was recorded withStaphylococcussp 5(33.0%), followed by Streptococcusspwhile Pseudomonassp recorded the least 1(26.5%), Bacillus Sp and Mycobacterium Sprecorded (7.0%) had the least.  Penicilliumsp and Cladosporiumsp 2 (25%) each, Rhizopussp(37.5%)hadthe highest for fungal isolateswhile Trichophytonsp had the least 1 (12.5%). All Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus sp, Bacillussp and were sensitive to Streptomycin, Gentamycin and Levofloxacin, but resistant to Norfloxacin, Amoxil, Erythromycin, Ampiclox, Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas (sp) were sensitive to Nalidixic Acid, Augmentin, Ceporex and Gentamycin while resistant to Ciproflox, Tarivid, Streptompicin, Reflacin, and Ceporex. But Mycobacterium sp were resistant to all tested antibiotics.  The presence of these pathogens in swimming pool is a threat to public health and can constitute a serious health hazard to the users, thus health authority should regularly monitor the quality of pools for compliances with regulations.


Title Page                       -                            -                            i

Certification                   -                            -                            ii

Dedication                     -                            -                            iii

Acknowledgments                   -                            -                            iv

Abstract                         -                            -                            v

Table of Contents          -                            -                            vi

Chapter one

1.0     Introduction                   -                            -

1.1     Background of the study                                      -       

1.2     Statement of the problem                 

1.3     Aims of the Study                   -                            -


Chapter Two

2.0     Literature Review          -                            -                 

2.1     Recreational Water        -                            -                           

2.2     Types of Recreational Water                      -                           

2.2.1  Treated Recreational Water                        -                           

2.2.2  Untreated Recreational Water                             -                           

2.3     Recreational Water Pollution                      -                           

2.4     Recreational Water Illness                          -                           

2.5     Epidemiology Investigation of Recreational Water                          

2.6     Prevention of Recreational Water Illness    -                                    

2.7     Resistance Pathogens Associated with Recreational Water             

2.8     Qualitative Microbial Assessment of Recreational Water                          

2.9     Hazard and Risk of Recreational Water     -                           

2.10   Measure to Reduce Risk in Recreational Water                      

2.11 Guideline and Management for Healthy Recreational Water


Chapter Three

3.0     Materials and Method and Equipment

3.2     Sample Collection  

3.1     Materials, Reagents

3.3     Sterilization of Class Ware

3.3.1  Preparation of Media 

3.4     Microbiological Analysis of Sample

3.4.1  Serial Dilution of the Sample

3.4.2  Cultivation of bacterial isolate

3.4.3  Enumeration of Viable Colony Growth

3.4.4  Purification of Bacterial Isolate

3.4.5  Characterization and Identification of Bacterial Isolate

3.5     Antibiogram Susceptibility Test

3.6     Fungal Analysis


Chapter Four

4.0     Result and Discussion 

4.1     Result

4.2     Discussion

          Chapter Five

5.0     Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations





1.0     Introduction

1.1     Background of the Study

Recreational water is a term used to refers to a variety of water types: swimming pool, spas, water amusement parks, ocean, beaches, rivers and lake.Recreational water describes any body of water (still or flowing) that people come into contact with undertaking recreational activities that have substantial benefit to health and wellbeing for rest and relaxation, physical activity exercise, pleasure and fun, it also present risk to health.Polluted and unsafe recreational water can lead to infection, exposures to chemicals injuries and death. Recreational water users can be exposed to a range of disease-causing microorganisms, including those naturally present in water.Many of the infections agent concern in recreational water source are feacal pollution including sewage, surface runoff, domestic and wildlife is as the result of feacal pollution especially in human, (Cabelli, 2003). Infectious diseases caused by the accidental swallowing of swimming pool water that was contaminated

with microorganisms associated with the skin, ear, and gastrointestinal tract infection were the most common infectious disease agent that can be transmitted by recreational water. Swimming pool water depend on the size of the pool and microbiological analyses are performed once per month and chemical analysis at least 2 times per year pool are inspected once per month during the bathing season. Swimming pool water concrete tanks, large artificial basins or large paved holes containing water for swimming, the swimming pool water should meet potable water standard by being transparent, odorless and tasteless liquid having a freezing point of 0oc and boiling point of 100oc (Carins et al., 2003) infectious disease which can be transmitted by recreational water include skin, eye and ear infections and gastroenteritis. The levels of micro-organism in recreational water are important for indexing the health hazard associated with swimming. Assess bathing water quality is related to the density of the bather, high density of swimming lead to a risk contact with pathogens that are similar to the risk involved in bathing water considered improper because of feacal pollution, the assessment at the time of collection of some physical and chemicals aspects such as free available chlorine and ph and the estimation of swimmer load cloud as predict the quality of pool water. (Estroman et al. 2003).

Swimming pool operators prefer iodine to chlorine as a disinfectant because it action is less hindered by organic matter and there is less eye and skin irritation with chlorine, each bather is expected to shower with soap before entering the pool, disinfectant of swimming pool should control the organism responsible for many disease and relatively protected from disinfection by the filter material or structural features in the pool, people with infections of any kind should not be allowed entry into the pool despites these operation to ensures portability of the water and maintenance of good hygiene people go swimming in the pool for different reasons such as recreational activities, sport for rehabilitative treatment, swimming pools have been increasingly popular and possible maintenance failure might cause public health problems, the latter is because different micro-organism (fungi, viruses, bacteria and protozo) can be found in swimming pools which may introduce into the swimming pool water because of some activities of the bathers, such as passing excrete during swimming (Cruickshank  at al., 1975). Swimming pool may be infected with pathogenic micro-organism entering the pool directly or indirectly through contaminated air, soil, dust, rain water sewage, human or animal excrement and individual bathers, unless the water is adequately treated. Contamination may lead to outbreak of diseases such as skin ulcers, gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, trachoma, ear infection such as cholera, dysentery, eczema and skin rashes. Microbiological evaluation has most method for sanitary and quality control of swimming pool, it has effective control test for indicator Bacteria of feacal pollution, their presence is a strong indicator of enteric pathogenic bacteria such as Salmoelle Typhi, Paratyphi, Shigella, Dysonteriae, VibrioCholeraand parasites in the pool. Skin tuberculosis cause by MycobacteriumBaliteri has been reported after swimmers had bathes in water from which a large amount of micro-organism were found (Mood, 2007).

The best indicator in the assessment of the safety of swimming pool water is disputed. Some researcher emphasize that the microbiological quality of swimming pools, is best measured by using bacteria that indicate feacal contamination as feacalcoli form and Enterococci, while others considers that the risk of infection is more associated with micro-organism derived for the skin, mouth, and upper respiratory tract of bather rather than feacal contamination (Seyfriedet al.,  2005b).

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The use of recreational water such as swimming pool has effectively contributed to human waterborne infection, due to the presence of pathogenic organism originating either through deposition of feacal material or other activities. The microbial standard of recreational water determines it safety and value of water to human. Many users of recreational water have contracted various illnesses including skin infection, eyes and ear infection, gastroenteritis as a result of contaminated water with organisms such as SalmonellaspShigellasp, Vibrio sp. Mycobacteriumspetc.

Based on these health challenges and other human abnormalities encountered due to the use of recreational water, this work seek to assess the microbial quality of recreational water in Akwa Ibom State.

1.3     Aims of the Study

i.        To isolate, characterized and identify microorganisms associated with swimming pools in Akwa Ibom State.

ii.       To relate them to possible public health implications.

iii.      To determine themicrobiological quality swimming pool in relation to WHOstandard for recreational water.

1.4     Significance of the Study

This study is significantly important to recreational water (swimming pool) users, since it unveiled the different microorganismsin recreational water and these possible health implications will also be of high benefit to recreational water’s owners or managers, it will also educate them on the need and importance of sterilization of recreational water as well as changing of the water at appropriate time.

Furthermore, it will enable both the users and manger or owners of recreational water to observeprecaution roles and regulations on the prevention, maintenance and eradication of contaminating sources to the recreational water bodies found in Akwa Ibom State. Thus reducing the risk of infection and contamination to the minimal.

More so, this study will also add to the already existing literature on related researched topics.

1.5     Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study is mainly to assess the microbial quality of recreational water (swimming pool) found in Akwa Ibom State, other parameter of the water are not to be considered. This therefore lilts the research work only to bacteria and fungi identification and characterization (isolates) and their microbial load colony count. Often completing and limiting factors include time frame, financial burden among others.


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