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PROJECT ID : 14929
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 38
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

METRONIDAZOLE AS AN ANTIBIOTIC
()
Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

Metronidazole as an antibiotic was investigated. Samples of metronidazole tablets contain 250 mg and 500 mg of metronidazole were extracted and analysed for their chemical composition contain in metronidazole such as Sodium Chloride 0.9%, Glucose-Saline combinations by titration method using. Using potassium chloride injections 20mmol/L and 40mmol/L. Results revealed that While Glucose 10% is compatible with metronidazole infusion, its use as a diluent and is not recommended because of the high osmolality of the resulting solution. Metronidazole infusion is incompatible with aluminium; therefore, other drugs should not be added directly to metronidazole infusion.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page -------------------------------------------------------------------------- i

Declaration ------------------------------------------------------------------------ii

Approval Page --------------------------------------------------------------------iii

Dedication Acknowledgment ---------------------------------------------------iv

Abstract ---------------------------------------------------------------------------v

Table of Contents -----------------------------------------------------------------vi

Lists of Table-------------------------------------------------------------------- vii

CHAPTER ONE:

1.1      Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------1

1.2      Background of the Study -------------------------------------------------- --1

1.3     Objectives of the Study --------------------------------------------------------3

1.4      Significance of the study ------------------------------------------------------3

1.5       Scope of the Study --------------------------------------------------------------4

1.6       Definition of terms --------------------------------------------------------------4

CHAPTER TWO:

2.0        Review of Related Literature -------------------------------------------------6

2.1        Introduction  -------------------------------------------------------------------6

2.2       Concept of Metronidazole ----------------------------------------------------6

2.3       The Rapeutic use of Metronidazole for Anaerobic infections---------------7

2 4       Metronidazole in Clinical practice--------------------------------------------10

2.5       Metronidazole Therapy for Intra-abdominal infections.--------------------12

2.6       Mechanisms of action and Resistance to Metronidazole---------------------14

2.7       Metronidazole and the Normal Microflora-------------------------------------20

2.8       Levels of Resistance to Metronidazole-------------------------------------------23

CHAPTER THREE:

3.0       MATERIALS AND METHOD --------------------------------------------------24

3.1       Laboratory/ Workshop specific method----------------------------------------24

3.2       Sample/material/component/Collection ----------------------------------------24

3.3       Sample Preparation/Material or Component/Selection-----------------------25

3.4       Experiments/Design or Construction Procedure ------------------- ---------26

3.5       Experimental Analysis------------------------------------------------------------27

3.6       Medical Values-------------------------------------------------------------------30

3.8       Recommended Dose--------------------------------------------------------------32

CHAPTER FOUR:

4.0       PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

4.1       Introduction-------------------------------------------------------------------------35

4.2       Presentation of results--------------------------------------------------------------35

4.3       Analysis of result -----------------------------------------------------------------35

4.4       Summary of Results ----------------------------------------------------------------40

4.4       Discussion of results----------------------------------------------------------------40

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.0        SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS-

5.1            Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------42

5.2                Summary---------------------------------------------------------------------42

5.3                Conclusion-----------------------------------------------------------------42

.5.4               Recommendations---------------------------------------------------------43

References ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------45

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1: computed Properties

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Metronidazole commonly known as flagylis a drug used to treatinfections caused by parasites (amoeba)and anaerobe bacteria. It can be given totreat diarrhea caused by Entamoebahistolytica, Giardia lamblia, or Clostridiumdifficile. It can also be used to treat vaginalinfections or various types of bacterial infections. (Adamsson, 2001).

Metronidazole belongs to the class of medications called antibiotics. It is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. It is most commonly used for abdominal, vaginal, and intestinal infections. Metronidazole works by killing bacteria and parasites.

Metronidazole is available as 250 mg tabletsand 500 mg capsules. It is also available asvaginal creams and inserts as well as acream to apply on the skin. If needed,metronidazole can also be givenintravenously (by the veins).

Metronidazole has been used for the treatment of infections for 145 years and is still successfully used for the treatment of trichomoniasis, amoebiasis, and giardiasis. Anaerobic bacterial infections caused by Bacteroides species, fusobacteria, and clostridia respond favorably to metronidazole therapy. Good clinical results in the treatment of vaginosis due to Gardnerellavaginalis have also been reported. Rates of resistance to metronidazole are still generally low; however, several studies have reported decreased susceptibility among Bacteroides species, as well as different mechanisms of resistance. Metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pyloristrains have been described, but combination therapy (eg, metronidazole, amoxicillin, or clarithromycin plusomeprazole) is still recommended for eradication of this pathogen in patients with gastroduodenal ulcers.(Adamsson, 2001).

Metronidazole is considered to be a cost-effective drug because of its low cost, good activity against pathogenic anaerobic bacteria, favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-dynamic properties, and minor adverse effects.

Metronidazole is an antimicrobial agent that has beenused in clinical medicine for 145 years. It was originallyindicated for the management of infection caused byTrichomonas vaginalis and was then shown to be effective against other protozoa infections, such as ame-biasis and giardiasis. To our knowledge, the first reporton the effect of metronidazole for the management ofanaerobic infections was published in 1962 by Shinn. In that investigation, acute ulcerative gingivitis was successfully treated by using metronidazole therapy.

However, major advances were made by Tally (2001) at the Wadsworth Veterans Hospital in Los Angeles10 years later; Tally(2001) and colleagues showed that metronidazole is useful in the treatment of systemic an-aerobic infections, including those caused by Bacteroidesfragilis. Later, metronidazole was introduced forthe management of Clostridium difficile infection and is still recommended as an alternative to vancomycin for treatment of this infection. Treatment regimens forthe eradication of Helicobacter pylori still include metronidazole in combination with other agents. Metronidazole is also indicated for the treatment of bacterialvaginosis caused by Gardnerellavaginalis. Despite 45years of extensive use, metronidazole remains the criterion standard for the management and prophylaxisof anaerobic infections. (Sullivan 2010).

 

1.2       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this research study is to evaluate Metronidazole as an antibiotic which is effective against anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites

To examine the use of Metronidazole for the treatment of disease cause by Anaerobic bacteria in the body

 

1.3       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of metronidazole and other antibacterial drugs, metronidazole should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

Flagyl is an antibiotic effective against anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Anaerobic bacteria are single-celled, living organisms that thrive in environments in which there is little oxygen (anaerobic environments). Anaerobic bacteria can cause disease in the abdomen (bacterial peritonitis), liver (liver abscess), and pelvis (abscess of the ovaries and the Fallopian tubes). Giardia lamblia and ameba are intestinal parasites that can cause abdominal pain and diarrhea in infected individuals. Trichomonas is a vaginal parasite that causes inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis). Metronidazole selectively blocks some of the functions within the bacterial cells and the parasites resulting in their death.

 

1.4    SCOPE/ LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is limited to Metronidazole among the class of medications called antibiotics. The major limitation of this study was that the tablets and capsule of 500 mg was not commonly found.

The collection of the sample tablet and capsule was not that easy as challenges was on where to see a good laboratory to test for optimal result.

 

1.5       DEFINITION OF TERMS

ANTIBIOTIC:Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. They either kill bacteria or keep them from reproducing.

INFECTION: An infection happens when a foreign organism enters a person's body and causes harm.

THERAPY: The treatment of disease or disorders, as by some remedial, rehabilitating, or curative process: speech therapy

ALLERGIC:  A condition that makes a person become ill or develops skin or breathing problems because they have eaten certain foods or come in contact with certain substances.

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY: Drugs or substances that reduces inflammation.

THERAPEUTICS: The branch of medicine that deals with different methods of treatment and healing (therapy), particularly the use of drugs in the cure of disease.

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
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