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PROJECT ID : 14846
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NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF UTAZI LEAF AS COMPONENTS OF OUR DIET
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to human against infections and degenerative diseases. Current research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants due to safe therapeutics. The potentially reactive derivatives of oxygen, ascribed as ROS (Reactive oxygen molecules) such as are continuously generated inside the human body as a consequence of exposure to a plethora of oxygenous chemicals in our ambient environment and/or a number of endogenous metabolic process involving redox Enzymes and bioenergetics electron transfer. GongroneaLatifiliumhave been recognized to possess profound medicinal properties following it utilization as spice for edible purpose, purgative, anti-inflammatory or anti-mcrobial agent in traditional medicine. There is a resurgence of interest in this spice due to it significant role in management of various human ailments. The discovery of therapeutic efficacy of GongroneaLatifilium with less toxic side effects compared to modern drugs is gradually creating room for its glob al utilization as better alternatives to chemically synthesized drugs. The study attempts to evaluate the potential active components of GongroneaLatifilium whose biological roles could be employed therapeutically in the management of various health complications.

NOMENCLATURE

PHYTOCHEMICALS: These are chemicals that occur naturally in plant.

ANTIOXIDANTS: This is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules.

OXIDATION: Is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals leading to chain reactors that may damage cells.

FREE RADICAL: They are reactive atom or group of atoms that jhas one or more unpaired electrons.

ROS (REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES): They are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

ENDOGENOUS ANTIGENS: They are generated within normal cells as a result of normal cell metabolism.

EXOGENOUS ANTIGENS: They are the antigens that arts, into the host from the outside through inflation.

ENZYMES: They are organic catalysts that speed up chemical reactions and it aid metabolism and catabolism

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Tittle page  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Declaration -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Approval page     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgement         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Nomenclature       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

Table of Contents -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        viii

CHAPTER ONE:

1.0     Introduction         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1     Background of the Study        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2     Statement of the Study  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        7

1.3     Objective of the Problem         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

1.4     Significance of the Study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

1.5     Scope/Limitations of the Study         -        -        -        -        -        -        9

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        10

2.1     Plants as Sources of Natural and Medicinal Products   -        -        10

2.2     The Plant GongronemaLatifolium (Utazi)  -        -        -        -        14

2.2.1  Sceintific Classification OfGongronemaLatifolium (Utazi)      -        14

2.2.2  Distribution of GongronemaLatifolium      -        -                  -        15

2.2.3  Distribution of GongronemaLatifolium (UTAZI) -        -        -        15

2.2.4  Economic Importance of GongronemaLatifolium (Utazi)        -        -        17

2.2.5  Chemical Composition of GongronemaLatifolium (Utazi)      -        -        17

2.2.6  Previous Chemical and Pharmacological Investigations on GongronemaLatifolium  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

 

CHAPTER THREE:

3.0     METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH          -        -        -        -        -        19

3.1     Materials    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

3.1.1 Plant Material       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

3.1.2 Instruments/ Equipment -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

3.1.3 Chemicals    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

3.1.4 Reagents for Analysis    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

3.2     Methodology        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        22

3.2.1 Laboratory Methods      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        22

3.2.2 Sample Collection          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        22

3.2.3 Sample Preparation       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        22

3.2.4 Experimental Procedure -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.2.5 Experimental Analysis  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.3     Preliminary Qualitative Phytochemicals Analysis         -        -        -        24

3.3.1 Test for Alkaloids          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.3.2 Test for Glycosides        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.3.3 Test for Saponins -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.3.4 Test for Tannin    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

3.3.5 Test for Flavonoids       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3.6 Test for Steroids  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3.7 Test for Polyphenol       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        25

3.3.8 Test for Resins using Precipitate test:         -        -        -        -        -        26

3.3.9 Test for Phenol     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

3.3.10 Test for Terpenoids       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION   -        -        -        27

4.1     Presentation of Results  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

4.2     Analysis of Results        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        28

4.3     Summary of Results      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        28

4.4     Discussion of Results    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

 

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.0     SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION  -        -        31

5.1     Summary    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

5.2     Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

5.3     Recommendation -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

Reference    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -           36  

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Scientific studies show that some medicinal natural products are potent    organ toxins and also possess antifertility properties. These damaging effects can however be halted, inhibited delayed or even prevented by a group of biological substances known as antioxidants (yaye and Aviran, 2001). Antioxidants are themselves reducing agents that possess the capacity to neutralize the oxidant (free radicals/ROS) either by donating electron to the oxidants or their outright removal from the system (Thumham, 1996, Bynes and Thorpe, 1999). Achineion et al (1995)have accordingly reported their use in the improvement of immune functional and lowering the risk of cell dysfunction, heart disease, cancer and diabetes mellitus. For instance treatment with antioxidants such as N- acety-1-Cysterine, Vitamins (and E in obese diabetics rat exerted beneficial effects (Kaneto et al, 2006) and vitamin E alone was also used to reverse platelet dysfunction in diabetic subjects ( Jain et al, 1998)

Incidentally, many herbs and leafy vegetables are reportedly rich in diverse antioxidant component. The medicinal and nutrients roles of these herbs and leafy vegetables have largely been attributed to their antioxidants component. Osagie and Eka (2004) have opened that antioxidants are parts of the protective components present in plants including phytochemicals. A survey of 35 medicinal plants by Mecune and John (2002) also revealed that the antioxidant activities of Methanol extracts of these plants support their contribution to a lifestyle historically low in the incident of diabetes in North America (Canada) and also that 89% of the extracts of these plants have antioxidants activity significantly greater than modern dietary components . Cells conxene substantial resources to protect themselves from the potentially damaging effect of ROS. Several vitamins and micronutrients, which are active of quenching these free radical species or required for their enzymatic detoxification, as well as enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT), constitute a first line of defense against ROS and are generally referred to as primary antioxidant, oxidative damage to (DNA), Proteins, Carbohydrates and Lipids appears to stimulate the systematic activity of “Repair” enzymes regarded as secondary antioxidant defenses that are involved in the removal of non-functional cell component or in the actual repair of damaged bio molecular (Ahmed 1995).

When the cellular generation of oxidants (reactive species) overwhelms or by passes these defenses a pathophysiological condition known as oxidative stress is said to arise, pathological processes mediated by this stress include the leakage of cell membranes, dysfunction of mitochondria depletion of ATP, These processes which affect cells and DNA lead to aging tumor promotion and cancer, Inflammatory diseases, post-Ischemic injury and numerous serious ailments. Lipid peroxidation is a major mechanism of cells injury in tissues and organisms subjected to oxidative stress. Hydroxyl, radical are capable initiating lipid peroxidation by abstracting hydrogen atom from fatty acid side chain (Kannes et al, 1997). The implication of oxidative stress in far more pathologies and disorders than previously imagined has demonstrated the need for the development of more potent antioxidants, Nature has been a potential source of a variety of plants with diversified medicinal values and herbs were used for the treatment of various ailments for thousands of years and plant based drugs continue to play an essential role in the primary health care of 80%of the world’s underdeveloped and developing countries (Grover and Vats, 2001). Plant based foods generally are considered important sources of antioxidant in diets (Miller et al, 2000). The medicinal value of these plants lies in their component phytochemicals, which produce definite physiological action on the human body (Akinmoladun et al, 2007). The most important of these phytochemicals are alkaloid, tannis, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compound it is believed that phytochemicals may be effective in combating or preveting diseases due to their antioxidant potential (Farambi et al, 1998).

Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries (awg, 2000). The use of plant derived compounds as part of herbal preparations as well as alternative sources of medicament continues to play profound roles in the general provision of good health to people over the world (Farombi et al,1998). Interest in medicinal plants as a remerging health and has beenfuelled by the rising costs of prescription drugs in the maintenance of personal health and well-being and in the bio-prospecting new plants derived drugs (Farombi, 2003). Plants have been utilized as therapeutic agents since time immemorial in both organized and unorganized forms (Girach et al, 2003). The healing properties of many of many herbal medicines have been recognized in many ancient cultures. In modern times, plants have both served as a source of allopathic drugs or herbal extracts from for various chemotherapeutic purposes in developed and developing countries alike (Farombi, 2003), In the world, over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are of natural products origin (Gaig, 2000) and natural products play an important role in drug developing programmed of the pharmaceutical industries (Farombi, 2003).

During the past decade, the use of herbs and related products have increased from 34% in 1990 – 42% in 1995 (Izeubigie, 2003), Farombi (2003) indicated that of the 40% to 60% who use non-conventional treatment and management methods in controlling diabetes 23% of them use plants and materials. Herbs have been used as food and for medicinal purposes for centuries (Craig, 2000). The use of plant derived compounds as part of herbal preparations as well as alternative sources of medicament continues to play profound roles in the general provision of good health to people all over the world (Farombi et al, 1998).

Plants have both served as a source of allopalbic drugs of herbal extracts for various chemotherapeutic purposes in developed and developing countries alike (Farombi, 2003). In the world, over 50% of all modern clinical drugs are natural products origin (Craig, 2000) and natural products play an important role in drug development programed the pharmaceutical industries (Farombi, 2003). During the past decade, the use of herbs and related products has increased from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 1995 (Devbig, 2003). Farombi (2003) indicated that of the 40 to 60% who these non-conventional treatment and management methods in controlling diabetes, 23% of them use plants materials.

Modern science recognizes that life is based on complex and finely tuned network of reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions that are under homeostatic control. Cells or organism are constantly subjected to factors that can utter this redox balance, often resulting in overt generation of free radicals (Nedelco et al, 2004). A free radical is an atom or molecule that has one or more unpaired electrons and is capable of independed existence (Halliwell et al, 1995). Its consequent tendency to engage in electron transfer reactions with other compounds in a bid to attain a stable state makes it highly reactive (murray et al, 2000). The resultant effect is the destruction or inactivation of the molecules to whom the electrons were transferred or removed.

Most importantly, the deleterious effect of free radicals is enhanced by their initiation of chain reaction mechanism. The most biological significant free radicals are the reactive oxygen species (ROS). (murray et al. 2000). Which include hydroxyl radical (HO) and superoxide free radical (0-2). The biochemistry of reactive oxygen species is an important field with practical implications because whereas oxygen is an essential component of all living organisms, the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates seems to be common place in all aerobically metabolizing cells (Ahmed, 1995).

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed due to various endogenous and exogenous factors; the utilization of oxygen during aerobic respiration and exposure to pollutants, photochemicals smog, industrial chemicals and radiation from the environment (Krishnaiab et al, 2007). Among the deleterious reaction of ROS are oxidation of proteins, DNA, steroidal compounds and peroxidation of the cell membrane’s unsaturated lipids to form unstable hydro peroxides (Ahmed 1995). Oxidative stress, a process where highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and toxic free radical are produced and sustained is at the root (pathogenesis) of many degenerative disease including diabetes mellitus, alherosclerosis, coronary heart disease (CHDs), obesity, hypertension and cancer, some physiological processes like aging/senescence and cell death/cytoloxications (Kaneto et al, 2005) it is also said to contribute immensely to the deterioration and propagation of complications observed in some infection diseases like malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.

The healing properties of many herbal medicines have been recognized in many ancient cultures. Plants must have first been explored as source of food. As a result of food ingestion, a link with some plant with some plant properties must have been established (mendoncaFilno, 2006). Medicinal plants have been used for the treatment of various diseases for thousands of years. The use of terrestrial plant as medicines have been documented in Egypt, China, India and Greece from ancient times and an impressive number of modern drugs have been developed from them. The utilization of the medicinal plant is often based on ancestral experience with the upsurge in the use of herbal remedies, there is a need for a thorough scientific evaluation to validate or disapprove the supposedly therapeutic effects of some of these medicinal plants. Modern science recognizes that life is based on a complex and finely tuned network of reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions that are under homeostatic control. Cells or organisms are constantly subjected to factors that can alley this redox balance often resulting in overt generation of free radicals (Nedelco et al, 1995). A free radical is an atom or molecule that has one more unpaired electron(s) and is capable of independence existence (Haliwell et al, 1995). Its consequent tendency to engage in electrons transfer reactions with other compounds in a bid to attain a stable state makes it highly reactive.

 

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Nutritional therapy and phototherapy have emerged as new concepts in health care in recent years. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals have become progressively popular to improve health and to prevent treat diseases.

Medicinal plants provide a wide base of raw material for traditional medicine. The plant parts used, the methods of preparation and administration of extracts vary from one place to another medicinal plants have attracted so much attention especially in China and India. In Nigeria, many people are exploring in variety of herbal products for effective management of various ailments. These plants are sourced from the immediate environment such as the around forest reserves.

The knowledge of herbal medicine is gradually perishing and the role of herbal treatments and traditional healers in healthcare delivering in developing countries including Nigeria, has been seriously relegated to the background due to the perceived in compatibility of traditional and modern health care systems as well as health care policies and programmes which focus more on the conventional health care system. It is against this background that this research is embarked upon in other to establish the active component of this plant with therapeutic properties with a view of providing empirical bases for this plant “Utazi” for edible purposes or as therapeutic remedies in management of diseases as well as delivery of primary health care services

 

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The study arms at investigating nutritional analysis of utazi leaf as components of our diet. The research also aims at determining the phytoconstituets of the leaf, as well as assessing the secondary metabolites profile of its extracts.

 

Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of the study are to,

   a.  Determine the phytochemical constituents and carry out partial characterizations of the extracts of the leaf of utazi leaf;

   b.   Determine the chemical component of the isolated bioactive compound;

   c.   Investigate the secondary metabolites activity of the extracts; and

  d.   Determine the quantitative and qualitative phytochemicals composition of the extracts of utazi leaf.

 

1.4     Significance of the Study

Treatment and The results of this study will provide scientific evidence regarding how best they can be management of specific infection considering their respective bioactive phytochemicals profile. It will also provide evidence for the observed therapeutic effects of these plants when used singularly or in combination for medicinal purposes

Knowledge of quantitative and qualitative phytochemicals composition of the extracts of utazi leaf will go a long way in promoting their use in the management of nutrition deficiency associated and oxidative stress related conditions.

 

1.5     Scope/Limitation of the Study

Ethanolic extraction of the active component of this plant for phytochemical screening.And quantitative and qualitative phytochemical screening.

a.  Determination of Alkaloids

b.  Determination of Saponins

c.  Determination of Tannins

d.  Determination of Lavonoids

e.  Determination of Phenol

f.   Determination of Resins

g.  Determination of Glycoside

h.  Determination of Steriods

i.   Determination of Polypherol

j.   Determination of Terpenoids

 

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