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PROJECT ID : 14243
TYPE : Project
FILE TYPE : MS Word
PAGES : 54
PRICES : N3000 (12 USD)

 

 

BACTERIOLOGY AND ANTIBIOGRAM OF FRESH PRAWNS (MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII) HARVESTED FROM ITU RIVER, AKWA IBOM STATE.
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

The bacteriology and antibiogram of fresh prawn harvested from Itu river in Itu local government  area, Akwa  Ibom state was carried out using standard analytical procedure . The result reveals a total of five (5) bacteria, they are; Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureusAeromonas  hydrophila Flavobacterium meningoseticum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella  typhi  had the highest bacterial count of (7.6x105) cfu/g , followed by Staphylococcus aureus  (6.5x105) cfu/g, Aeromonas hydrophila (6.1x105) cfu/g Flavobacterium meningosepticum  (5.1x105)cfu/g and the least being Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.0x105) cfu/g. The result of antibiotic suceptiibility test shows that   Salmonella typhi  was sensitive to Amoxicillin (30mm)Aeromonas hydrophila was sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (30mm), Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to Erythromycin (25mm) and Rifampicin (23mm), Flavobacterium meningosepticum was sensitive to Chloramphenicol (22mm) and Pseudomonas  aeruginosa was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (20mm) while they were   resistant to other antibiotic used. The presence of food borne  pathogen in fresh prawn harvested from Itu river is attributed to the indiscriminate dumping of faeces and sewage  into the river and general poor hygienic  condition of both  personnel and equipment  used in harvesting , transporting and storage of prawns .The  high microbial  load  from this study  is of public health significant compared to International commission on microbiological specification for foods  (2002) limit which state that  microbial  load of prawns for human consumption should not exceeds (2.8x105) cfu/g.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:      Microbial Load of the Isolated Organism from Fresh Prawns

Table 2:      Cultural and Morphological Characteristics of the Isolated Bacteria from Fresh Prawns

Table 3:      Biochemical Characteristics of Bacteria Isolated from Prawns

Table 4:      Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of the Isolated Bacterial from Fresh Prawns.

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                  PAGES

Title page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Certification         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Acknowledgment           -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

List of Tables       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

Table of Content  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION                   -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1              Background of the Study        -        -        -        -        -        2

1.2              Aim of the Study  -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.3              Significance of the Study         -        -        -        -        -        3

1.4              Scope and Limitation of the Study   -        -        -        4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0              LITERATURE REVIEW        -        -        -        -        5

2.1              History of Prawns         -        -        -        -        -        -        5

2.2              Types of Prawns  -        -        -        -        -        -        7

2.3              Scientific Classification of Prawns    -        -        -        9

2.4              Morphology of Prawns  -        -        -        -        -        10

2.5              Health Benefits of Prawns       -        -        -        -        11

2.6              Source of Contaminated with Prawns Contamination   16

2.7              Bacteria Associated with Prawns Contamination          -        17

2.8              Strategies to Prevent Prawns Contamination       -        -        18

2.9              Preservation of Harvested Prawns    -        -        -        19

CHAPTER THREE

3.0              MATERIAL AND METHODS         -        -        -        -        22

3.1              Collection of Samples    -        -        -        -        -        22

3.2              Preparation of Media Used     -        -        -        -        22

3.3              Sterilization of Glass wares     -        -        -        -        22

3.4              Preparation of Sample Used   -        -        -        -        23

3.5              Serial Dilution      -        -        -        -        -        -        23

3.5.1           Cultivation of Microorganism -        -        -        -        23

3.5.2           Counting of Colonies     -        -        -        -        -        24

3.5.3           Morphological Characterization of the Isolates    -        24

3.5.4           Purification and Maintenance of Microbial Isolates                25

3.6              Gram Staining Reaction -        -        -        -        -        25

3.7              Biochemical Characterization of the Isolates                 -        26

3.7.1           Coagulase Test     -        -        -        -        -        -        26

3.7.2           Catalase Test        -        -        -        -        -        -        28

3.7.3           Oxidase Test        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

3.7.4           Motility Test        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

 3.7.5          Sugar Fermentation Test         -        -        -        -        -        30

3.7.6           Spore Staining Test       -        -        -        -        -        31

3.7.7           Citrase Test          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        32

3.7.8           Urease Test -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

3.7.9           Starch Hydrolysis Test  -        -        -        -        -        34

3.7.10         Methyl Red-Voges Proskauer Test (MR-VP)                 -        35

3.7.11         Indole Test  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        35

3.8              Antibiotic Sensitivity Test       -        -        -        -        35

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0              RESULT AND DISCUSSION          -        -        -        -        37

4.1              Result                   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        37

4.2              Discussion  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        41

                     CHAPTER FIVE

5.0              SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1              Summary    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        50

5.2              Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        51

5.3              Recommendation -        -        -        -        -        -        52

                   Reference

                   Appendix

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is a type of edible swimming shellfish known as crustacean, having grey colour when raw which turns pink when cooked with  sweet firm meaty flesh.

Members of this group include crabs, lobsters and shrimps (Bruce and Alison, 2009). The name Macrobrachium roenbergii applies to all species of fresh water prawns and is often defined as large shrimps. All true prawns are members of the family palaemonidea. Prawns can be harvested from a range of aquatic environment- deep sea, shallow coastal water and rivers, though they are also grown in fish farms.

Prawns prefers fresh water environment but most of them are tolerant of salt water. They are grown to length over 8cm, however, they are harvested at half that size (Jeyasekaran and Ayyapan, 2002). Prawns are caught in nets and refrigerated on board ships until they can be delivered to the processing plant where they are washed, sorted and usually peeled before being cooked while some raw prawns are sold frozen.

Prawns are now considered as everyday ingredient and are available either raw, cooked in or out of their shell while others are being frozen.

They are important commercial commodities due to some properties as food supply a well as valuable export product.

Increasing demand for this product for domestic consumption and export market has increased remarkably.

Prawns are great source of high quality protein and provide some of the most important vitamins and minerals that make up a healthy diet (Gillet, 2008). They are low in carbohydrate, calories and are makeup of extremely healthy cholesterol. Eating prawn is part of a heart healthy diet. And because they are common throughout the world, there are healthy prawn’s dishes within almost every styles or type of cuisine.

1.1     Background of the Study

This research work seeks to determine the Bacteriological quality of fresh prawns harvested from Itu river.

1.2     Aim of the Study

(i)      This study is intended to isolate, characterize and identify the bacteria that is associated with prawns harvested from Itu river, Akwa Ibom state.

(ii)     To carryout antibiotic susceptibility test on the isolated organisms.

(iii)    To determine the prevalence of the isolated organisms from the samples.

(iv)   To determine multi-drug resistance profile of the isolated organisms.

1.3     Significance of the Study

The significance of this study is to know if the fresh prawns harvested from Itu river, is free from bacteria or if it contains some bacteria so as to aid in advising the consumers on safer method of preparation of prawn from Itu river.

It will also help to update the data previously in used and to help consumers decide safer ways to handle and preserve prawns to avoid the problem of contamination and that of multi-drug resistance.

It will also provide solutions to the problem of food borne related illness as a result of consuming prawns from Itu river.

1.4     Scope and Limitation of the Study

This research is limited to the isolation, identification and characterization of organisms that are present in fresh prawns harvested from Itu river only.

 

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