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PROJECT ID : 12930
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BACTERIOLOGOCAL ANALYSIS OF SALADS SERVED IN IKOT EKPENE METROPOLIS
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Science Lab. Technology

ABSTRACT

This research work deals with the bacteriological analysis of fruit salad within IkotEkpene metropolis. This shows that the fruit salad had the presence of such organism as staphylococcus aurous had 26.3% (percentage) of occurrence, Bacillus specie of 31.6% while pseudomonas species and micrococcus species had 21.1% each. The mean colony count of the isolate showed that fruit salad sample 1 (FSS1) had 1.2×104cfu/g which was the least count while FSS2 had the highest count of 2.9×104cfu/g. this result though not quite high as compared to the WHO (2014) but it thus reveals the mishandling of and disregard to hygienic measured by food vendor which can automatically affect the health of the consumers. Also from the research work carried out on fruit salad, it has been discovered that it contains vitamins such as vitamin A,B&E, which in building and repairing of the body parts.This research work involves five chapters, which began with background of the study, four research questions were generated for the purpose of this study, related literature were reviewed in chapter two and a research experimental design was adopted for the study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title pages -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Approval    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Dedication -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Acknowledgment -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Table of Contents          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

List of Table         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1            Background of the Study                  -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.2            Statement of the Problem        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.3     Objectives of the Study           -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.4     Research Question         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        3

1.5     Research Hypothesis     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.6     Significance of the Study                  -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.7     Scope/Limitations of Study of the Study    -        -        -        -        -        4

1.8     Definitions of Terms               -        -        -        -        -        -        4

1.9     Profile of the Company -        -        -        -        -        -        -        4

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     Introduction         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

2.2     Components of Salad    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        6

2.3     Micro-Organism associated with Fruit Salad     -        -        -        -        7

2.4     Food Borne Illness (Pathogen & Natural Toxin)   -        -        -        -        8

2.4.1   Food Pathogens:          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

2.4.2   Natural Toxins: -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

2.5     Factors Affecting the Growth of Micro-Organisms in Foods            -        10

2.5.1    Extrinsic Factors         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        10

2.5.2    Temperature      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        11

2.5.3   Humidity    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        11

2.5.4   Oxygen       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        11

2.5.5   Intrinsic Factors   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.5.6    PH Factor -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        12

2.5.7   Moisture Content (Water Activity)  -        -        -        -        -        12

2.6      Routs of Microbial Contamination of Fruit         -        -        -        -        13

2.6.1   Air and Dust        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.6.2   Soil, Water and Plants  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.6.3   Gastrointestinal Tract  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.6.4    Food Handlers   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.6.5    Fruit Utensils     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        14

2.6.6    Cross-Contamination  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.67     Unsafe Temperature    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.6.8     Poor Personal Hygiene         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        16

2.6.9    Chemical Contamination of Fruits -        -        -        -        -        16

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Introduction         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        18

3.2     Laboratory Specific Method    -        -        -        -        -        -        18

3.3     Sample Collection          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

3.4     Sample Preparation       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        19

3.5     Experimental Design and Preparation       -        -        -        -        -        19

3.6    Experiment Analysis and Test          -        -        -        -        -        -        20

3.6.1  Biochemical Test  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        20

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION , ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

4.1     Introduction        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

4.2     Presentation of Results  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        24

4.3     Analysis of Results        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        26

4.4     Discussion of Result      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        27

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND  RECOMMENDATION

5.1              Introduction         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

5.2              Summary    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

5.3              Conclusion -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        29

5.4              Recommendations         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        30

References                 -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Cultural Morphology of the Bacteria    -        -        -        -        -        24

Table 2: Report of Grams Stain and Biochemical         -        -        -        -        25

Table 3: Mean Colony Count (mcc) of the Isolates form Fruit Salad                  -        26

Table 4: Percentage Frequency of Occurrence (FO) of Bacteria Isolates   -        27

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Salad is a term broadly applied to many fruit preparation that have mixture of chopped or sliced ingredients which may be mostly fruits or vegetables. Common vegetables used in fruit salad include cucumber, pepper, tomatoes, onions, carrots, spring onions and radishes. Other ingredients such as olive, mushroom, hard-boiled egg, green beans, cheese, heat or seafood are sometimes added to salads. Fruits and vegetables are well known sources of useful nutrients in the form of vitamin, minerals, dietary fibers and other phyto nutrients including flavonoids, carotenoids and phenolic compounds that may lower the risk of cancer heart disease and other illnesses.

Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is encouraged and a recommendation of at least to give serving per day has been made to American consumer, (James et al., 2011).

Vegetables have been associated with outbreak of foodborne disease in many countries; organisms involved include bacteria, viruses and parasites. The outbreak varies in size from a few person affected to many thousands. Contamination of vegetables may take place at all stages during pre and post-harvest techniques. (Halablabet al., 2011).

According to (Johnnessenet al., 2002) “unsafe water used for rinsing the vegetables and sprinkling to keep them fresh can also be a source of contamination, other possible sources of micro-organism include soil, faces (human and animal origin). Ice, animals (including insects and birds); handling of the product, harvesting and processing equipment and transportation.”

The romans ancients Greeks ate mixed with dressing, in his 1699 book, Acctara-A., on salads (john Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, queen of scot, ate boiled celery root over greens covers with creaming mustard dressing truffles, chervil, and slices of hard boiled eggs. The United States popularized mixed greens salad in the late 19th century. Salads including laagered and dressed salads were popular in Europe since Greek imperial and particularly Roman imperial expansions. Several other regions of the 20th century from Europe and the Americans to China, Japan and Australia, salads are sold in super markets, at restaurants and at fast food chains.

In the U.S market restaurants will often have a “salad Bar” laid out salad. Market ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad. Salad restaurants were earning more than 300 million in 2014. The Mohall (agricultural village) of side war bury, Israel holds the Guinness world record for the largest little salad. Weighing 10.260kg (11.3 short tones). The event, held on to Nov 2007, was part of the 70th anniversary celebration of the founding of the Marshall. The salad was sold to participate and on lookers alike for 10 nus per bowl, raising 100,000 nix (over 25,000) to benefit alehnewel, a rehabilitative village for young adults suffering from severe physical and cognitive disabilities. Major general (RES) doronAlmogi, chairman of effort to prepare the salad it self took all day and most of the residents. Ranging from many of the original founders of the Marshall to young children participated (mosgnedamelgar et al., 2012).

 

1.2     Statement of Problem

From personal observation as a member of this local government area. I discover that many people have neglected fruit salad based on the numerous bacterial that is present in it, adequate measures has not been taken to curb this trend, hence the need to embark on this research work.

Therefore, this work seeks to find out the bacteriological analysis of fruits salad sold within IkotEkpene metropolis.

 

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The study is aimed at addressing the following objectives:

     i.            To isolates, bacteria from fruits salads.

    ii.            To enumerate and characterized the bacteria isolated from fruitsSalad.

    iii.            To encourage people to eat will prepared salads.

1.4     Research Questions

For the purpose of this study, the researcher tends to find answer to the following questions:

i.     What are the components of fruit salad?

ii.    Analyze the different types of bacteria found in fruit salad?

iii.   What are the effects of bacteria in fruit salad?

iv.     How can bacterial infection in fruit salad be prevented.

 

1.5     Significance of Study

This study is of high significant, a high level of food borne disease and infection has been reported in recent time as a result of the consumption fruit salad, therefore to help control and put a stop to the spread of this infection, this work was dimmed fit to be carried out.

 

1.6     Scope/Limitation of the Study

The scope of this study is to assess the bacteria contents of fruit salad obtained from vendors in IkotEkpene local government area. The research work is limited to IkotEkpene local government area, because of time frames and financial constraints.

 

1.7     Definition of Terms

Bacterial:Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic micro-organism. Typically a few micrometers in length.(Halablab, M. A, sheet, I. H. and H. M. Holail, (2011).

Bacteriological: Is the study of bacteria, especially in relation to medicine and agriculture.(Bibek, R., (2005).

Bacteriology:It is the branch and specially of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.(Lund, B. M. (1992).

Salad: A salad is a dish consisting of a mixture of small piece of food usually featuring vegetables.(Poorna, v, and Randhir.A. (2001).

Analysis:This is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance in to a smaller part in other to gain a better data information.(Argndin, M .A, Mendoza, mc.And RodicioMR (2010).

Fruits:A fruit is a seed bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering.(Najafi H., Monanad. B, and Bahraini M., (2012).

Metropolis: A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region  and an important hub for regional or international connections.(Scharfi. R .C., (2012).

 

INSTRUCTIONS: Please, sit back and study the above research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. Our aim of this research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works.

 

 

 

 
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