ARTICLE ID : 15906
TYPE : Article
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CATEGORY : Serminar



1.1   Introduction

Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products or any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives to make or modify products or processes for specific use (Arnold, 2005). For thousands of years, human kind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production and medicine.

The term is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian Karoly Ereky. In the late 20th and early 21th centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomics, recombinant gene techniques, applied immunology and development of pharmaceutical therapies, and diagnostic tests (Wang, 2010).

The wide concept of biotechnology encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to domestication of animals, cultivation of the plants, and improvements to these through breeding programs that employs artificial selection and hybridization modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue technologies (Thieman & Palladino 2008). One of the most important areas of biotechnology is in crime detection which is called forensic science or forensic biotechnology. Biotechnology is a vital instrument for the detection or investigation of crime and the administration of justice by providing crucial information about the evidence found at a crime scene. Forensic biotechnology is an area of medical science that experiences constant breakthrough every now and then. Forensic analysis of biological evidence using biotechnology methods is increasingly important in criminal investigations. Analysis of proteins in blood (serology), other body fluids and body tissues are some of the traditional methods in forensic analysis (Madea, 2007).

Forensic scientists collect or process trace evidence such as hair, skin, blood or semen samples that is found at crime scenes. Crime scene evidence can include a wide variety of substances such as hair, bodily fluids and fibres (Daniel, 2010). Evidence at a crime scene may only be found in small, trace amounts so forensic scientists use a variety of techniques including microscopic analysis, mass spectrometry, chromatography and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis.

Once samples have been collected from a crime scene, Environmental Science and Research (ESR) technicians carries out forensic analysis. They might analyze skin, blood or urine looking for the presence of drugs or process Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) evidence in the hope of identifying someone. Conversely, modern biological sciences are intimately entwined and heavily dependent on the methods through biotechnology. Biotechnology involves research and development in the laboratory using bioinformatics for exploration, extraction, exploitation and production from any living organisms of any source of biomass by means of biochemical engineering. In biotechnology, where high value added productions could be planned, forecasted, formulated, developed, manufactured and marketed for the purpose of sustainable operations and gaining durable patents rights for exclusive rights for sales. More to this, it attracts national and international approval from the results on animal experiment and human experiment, especially on the pharmaceutical branch of biotechnology to prevent any undetected side-effects of safety concerns by using the products (Ermak, 2013).

Crime in an ordinary language is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority (Oxford English Dictionary, 2009). Crime also means an offence punishable on indictment, or an offence punishable on summary conviction, and for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statue making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either absolutely or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment (Martin, 2003). The notion that, acts such as murder, rape and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide (Easton, 2013). What precisely is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code.


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